Most Diverse Countries 2020

Determining what countries are the most culturally diverse is a challenge. There are a variety of factors that contribute to diversity, which is why there’s not a single comprehensive list. However, there are a few lists that are commonly used to measure the cultural diversity of countries across the nation to determine which are the most diverse.

One list is known as the Fearon list. This is named for James Fearon, a professor at Stanford University. This list takes a look at the similarities between languages spoken in a nation. A higher score is given to nations that speak two or more unrelated languages, while a lower score indicates that most or all of the nation speaks the same language. This list has been criticized for focusing on linguistic variations instead of considering genetic diversity and other factors.

Based on the last list from 2003, the most ethnically diverse nation is Papua New Guinea, which was the only nation to receive a score of 1 – the highest score. Coming in second was Tanzania, with the Democratic Republic of Congo ranking third. The top 10 most ethnically and culturally diverse nations based on the Fearon analysis are:

Another list is the Alesina list. This list is named for Alberto Alesina, a political economist. This list considers factors beyond just languages, such as religion and ethnicity. Based on this list, the most diverse nation based on ethnicity is Uganda. Other nations that received high rankings for ethnicity include:

  • Liberia
  • Madagascar
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Congo
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Kenya

Based on linguistics, Uganda was found to be the most diverse. Additional nations that received high rankings include:

  • Liberia
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Cameroon
  • Kenya
  • Zambia

Based on religious diversity, South Africa was the most diverse nation. Additional nations at the top of this list include:

Most Diverse Countries 2020

* Greenberg's diversity index (Linguistic diversity index) gives the probability of two people selected at random from any one country speaking the same language.
Country Greenberg's Diversity Index Neighbors' Greenberg's Diversity Index Population 2020
Chad0.85140.68316,425,864
Cameroon0.84260.710526,545,863
Nigeria0.83060.7548206,139,589
Togo0.81180.66158,278,724
Dr Congo0.81110.500989,561,403
Kenya0.80910.428653,771,296
Guinea Bissau0.78570.69441,968,001
Republic Of The Congo0.77640.7610001015,518,087
Ivory Coast0.77230.691926,378,274
Liberia0.76940.65115,057,681
Gambia0.76660.67062,416,668
Central African Republic0.74140.79554,829,767
Gabon0.73790.64812,225,734
Tanzania0.73530.493259,734,218
South Africa0.72890.358759,308,690
Guinea0.71820.688813,132,795
Suriname0.71080.2659586,632
Sudan0.69610.528643,849,260
Canada0.69240.27837,742,154
Qatar0.68680.182,881,053
Benin0.68450.733312,123,200
Pakistan0.6820.4994220,892,340
Angola0.67210.701432,866,272
Mali0.67180.62220,250,833
Senegal0.67060.705316,743,927
Zambia0.66810.618718,383,955
Bolivia0.66710.184811,673,021
Mozambique0.65770.515831,255,435
Burkina Faso0.65010.705220,903,273
Ghana0.650.744731,072,940
Afghanistan0.64780.422238,928,346
Indonesia0.64730.4298273,523,615
Belize0.64360.5265397,628
Niger0.64090.621824,206,644
Micronesia0.63880115,023
India0.63670.41231,380,004,385
United Arab Emirates0.62460.29519,890,402
Monaco0.60250.379939,242
Andorra0.60220.330877,265
Kazakhstan0.59760.279518,776,707
Philippines0.58940109,581,078
Malaysia0.58770.547932,365,999
Malawi0.58580.68719,129,952
Mauritania0.58430.55334,649,658
Peru0.57680.284532,971,854
Bhutan0.57510.3873771,608
Iran0.5750.374183,992,949
Nepal0.57180.387329,136,808
Namibia0.55010.6092,540,905
Fiji0.54590896,445
Eritrea0.54580.57553,546,421
Mexico0.54180.4776128,932,753
Belgium0.53740.281411,589,623
Kuwait0.53070.27144,270,571
Djibouti0.52350.3873988,000
Guyana0.51980.254786,552
Latvia0.51680.30141,886,198
Moldova0.51360.31624,033,963
Guatemala0.51120.372117,915,568
Ethiopia0.50670.5368114,963,588
Brunei0.50070.5877437,479
Switzerland0.4960.21028,654,622
Thailand0.49580.432669,799,978
Myanmar0.48890.347554,409,800
Tajikistan0.48860.37929,537,645
Estonia0.48350.37611,326,535
Georgia0.48180.2173,989,167
Ecuador0.480.327117,643,054
Trinidad And Tobago0.478301,399,488
Luxembourg0.47820.3599625,978
Macedonia0.46740.29892,083,374
Sierra Leone0.46280.74387,976,983
Bahrain0.457601,701,575
Serbia0.45730.26618,737,371
Jordan0.45580.306610,203,134
Laos0.4490.31257,275,560
Morocco0.44450.299636,910,560
Mauritius0.43501,271,768
Palau0.4301018,094
Oman0.41010.40235,106,626
Sri Lanka0.4074021,413,249
Syria0.40080.307617,500,658
New Zealand0.392604,822,233
Singapore0.385705,850,342
France0.37990.405365,273,511
Kyrgyzstan0.37470.39516,524,195
Botswana0.3670.53252,351,627
Uganda0.3630.588945,741,007
Iraq0.36270.408740,222,493
Uzbekistan0.35640.480433,469,203
Bulgaria0.35270.34186,948,445
Libya0.34660.45416,871,292
Ukraine0.33490.270743,733,762
Liechtenstein0.32750.297738,128
Equatorial Guinea0.32520.79031,402,985
Zimbabwe0.31870.60540010114,862,924
Algeria0.31750.454543,851,044
Mongolia0.31010.18663,278,290
Turkey0.310.334184,339,067
Romania0.29750.361519,237,691
Madagascar0.2943027,691,018
Turkmenistan0.29320.54426,031,200
Lithuania0.29010.27482,722,289
Israel0.2830.29068,655,535
Spain0.28160.367946,754,778
San Marino0.28080.08233,931
United States0.2780.6171331,002,651
Papua New Guinea0.27180.64738,947,024
Bahamas0.26420393,244
Taiwan0.2487023,816,775
Russia0.23530.2794145,934,462
Vietnam0.2350.26497,338,579
Slovakia0.23090.15875,459,642
Jamaica0.220802,961,167
Panama0.21760.0679010014,314,767
Croatia0.21020.21814,105,267
Albania0.20860.32212,877,797
Cambodia0.20490.393316,718,965
Azerbaijan0.20320.344310,139,177
Seychelles0.2009098,347
Lesotho0.20070.72892,142,249
Belarus0.19650.30559,449,323
Chile0.18610.414619,116,201
Saudi Arabia0.180.511834,813,871
Egypt0.17930.4419102,334,404
El Salvador0.17810.31816,486,205
Greece0.17680.334710,423,054
Tuvalu0.1629011,792
Germany0.16250.27283,783,942
Poland0.15060.215737,846,611
Hungary0.14920.25389,660,351
Paraguay0.1490.22647,132,538
Slovenia0.14610.13522,078,938
Denmark0.14220.16255,792,202
China0.13790.42631,439,323,776
Lebanon0.12620.34196,825,445
Honduras0.1250.2619,904,607
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.11990.33383,280,819
Armenia0.11950.39252,963,243
Finland0.11190.11735,540,720
Solomon Islands0.1110686,884
Somalia0.10920.613115,893,222
Netherlands0.10530.349917,134,872
Austria0.09940.20679,006,398
Nicaragua0.09360.09176,624,554
Antigua And Barbuda0.0935097,929
Cyprus0.093301,207,359
Australia0.0929025,499,884
United Kingdom0.09010.086967,886,011
Barbados0.08750287,375
Tonga0.08690105,695
Ireland0.08690.09014,937,786
Italy0.0820.280460,461,826
Saint Vincent And The Grenadines0.07860110,940
Colombia0.07740.265150,882,891
Dominica0.0715071,986
Saint Lucia0.07110183,627
Iceland0.06780341,243
Grenada0.06670112,523
Hong Kong0.06207,496,981
Marshall Islands0.06059,190
Czech Republic0.05940.160810,708,981
Costa Rica0.05840.15565,094,118
Sweden0.05830.08510,099,265
Saint Kitts And Nevis0.0582053,199
Norway0.05810.13525,421,241
Swaziland0.05790.69331,160,164
Burundi0.05060.515511,890,784
Kiribati0.04910119,449
Portugal0.04510.281610,196,709
Vanuatu0.04050307,145
Venezuela0.03920.20328,435,940
South Korea0.03920.125151,269,185
Tunisia0.03910.332111,818,619
Malta0.02940441,543
Cuba0.0198011,326,616
Bangladesh0.01830.5628164,689,383
Cape Verde0.01380555,987
Japan0.01190126,476,461
Brazil0.01190.3045212,559,417
Samoa0.00780198,414
North Korea0.0020.039225,778,816
Comoros00869,601
Uruguay00.0063,473,730
Dominican Republic0010,847,910
Haiti0011,402,528
Rwanda00.4912,952,218
Argentina00.202845,195,774