Most Diverse Countries 2021

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The world's 7.8 billion people are incredibly diverse. Humans are unique in their languages, customs, religions, race, and more. Some countries are home to many unique groups of people. What countries are the most diverse?

In 2013, German researcher Erkan Gören measured the amount of cultural diversity in 180 countries worldwide. He used data on ethnicity and race and measured the similarity of languages spoken by major ethnic or racial groups. Goren gave each country a score between 0 and 1, with scores closer to 1 being more diverse. The paper is called Economic Effects of Domestic and Neighbouring Countries' Cultural Diversity.

It's important to note that Gören's study is for cultural diversity, different from ethnic diversity. Cultural diversity includes a country's language in its diversity profile instead of just looking at ethnic and race background. This is important when looking at countries like Brazil, which has a large mix of races in its population and is ethnically diverse. However, because virtually all Brazilians speak Portuguese, Gören ranks Brazil as one of the least diverse.

Based on his findings, the most diverse countries worldwide are:

Chad has over 100 ethnic groups among its 8.6 million residents. Chad is also Africa's fifth-largest country by area, spanning over 495,624 square miles. This allows Chad's ethnic groups to live and operate autonomously despite several attempts to unify them. Most of the 100 languages spoken in Chad are Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic and do not overlap with ethnic group identities. Arabic, Sara, and French are common across the country, especially Arabic, an important commercial language.

Cameroon has approximately 250 indigenous populations and as many local languages and customs. Because of Cameroon's many cultures and religions and its longstanding tradition of peace and tolerance, UNESCO has featured Cameroon as an "example of diversity to the world."

African countries ranked high in this study because of their many tribal groups and languages. The top five most diverse countries are African. Canada is the only western country among the top 20 most diverse countries.

Most Diverse Countries 2021

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Most Diverse Countries 2021

* Greenberg's diversity index (Linguistic diversity index) gives the probability of two people selected at random from any one country speaking the same language.
Country Greenberg's Diversity Index Neighbors' Greenberg's Diversity Index 2021 Population
Chad0.85140.68316,914,985
Cameroon0.84260.710527,224,265
Nigeria0.83060.7548211,400,708
Togo0.81180.66158,478,250
Kenya0.80910.428654,985,698
Guinea Bissau0.78570.69442,015,494
Republic Of The Congo0.77640.7610001015,657,013
Ivory Coast0.77230.691927,053,629
Liberia0.76940.65115,180,203
Gambia0.76660.67062,486,945
Central African Republic0.74140.79554,919,981
Gabon0.73790.64812,278,825
Tanzania0.73530.493261,498,437
South Africa0.72890.358760,041,994
Guinea0.71820.688813,497,244
Suriname0.71080.2659591,800
Sudan0.69610.528644,909,353
Canada0.69240.27838,067,903
Qatar0.68680.182,930,528
Benin0.68450.733312,451,040
Pakistan0.6820.4994225,199,937
Angola0.67210.701433,933,610
Mali0.67180.62220,855,735
Senegal0.67060.705317,196,301
Zambia0.66810.618718,920,651
Bolivia0.66710.184811,832,940
Mozambique0.65770.515832,163,047
Burkina Faso0.65010.705221,497,096
Ghana0.650.744731,732,129
Afghanistan0.64780.422239,835,428
Indonesia0.64730.4298276,361,783
Belize0.64360.5265404,914
Niger0.64090.621825,130,817
India0.63670.41231,393,409,038
United Arab Emirates0.62460.29519,991,089
Andorra0.60220.330877,355
Kazakhstan0.59760.279518,994,962
Philippines0.58940111,046,913
Malaysia0.58770.547932,776,194
Malawi0.58580.68719,647,684
Mauritania0.58430.55334,775,119
Peru0.57680.284533,359,418
Bhutan0.57510.3873779,898
Iran0.5750.374185,028,759
Nepal0.57180.387329,674,920
Namibia0.55010.6092,587,344
Fiji0.54590902,906
Eritrea0.54580.57553,601,467
Mexico0.54180.4776130,262,216
Belgium0.53740.281411,632,326
Kuwait0.53070.27144,328,550
Djibouti0.52350.38731,002,187
Guyana0.51980.254790,326
Latvia0.51680.30141,866,942
Moldova0.51360.31624,024,019
Guatemala0.51120.372118,249,860
Ethiopia0.50670.5368117,876,227
Brunei0.50070.5877441,532
Switzerland0.4960.21028,715,494
Thailand0.49580.432669,950,850
Myanmar0.48890.347554,806,012
Tajikistan0.48860.37929,749,627
Estonia0.48350.37611,325,185
Georgia0.48180.2173,979,765
Ecuador0.480.327117,888,475
Trinidad And Tobago0.478301,403,375
Luxembourg0.47820.3599634,814
North Macedonia0.46740.29892,082,658
Sierra Leone0.46280.74388,141,343
Bahrain0.457601,748,296
Serbia0.45730.26618,697,550
Jordan0.45580.306610,269,021
Laos0.4490.31257,379,358
Morocco0.44450.299637,344,795
Mauritius0.43501,273,433
Palau0.4301018,169
Oman0.41010.40235,223,375
Sri Lanka0.4074021,497,310
Syria0.40080.307618,275,702
New Zealand0.392504,860,643
Singapore0.385705,896,686
France0.37990.405365,426,179
Kyrgyzstan0.37470.39516,628,356
Botswana0.3670.53252,397,241
Uganda0.3630.588947,123,531
Iraq0.36270.408741,179,350
Uzbekistan0.35640.480433,935,763
Bulgaria0.35270.34186,896,663
Libya0.34660.45416,958,532
Ukraine0.33490.270743,466,819
Liechtenstein0.32750.297738,250
Equatorial Guinea0.32520.79031,449,896
Zimbabwe0.31870.60540010115,092,171
Algeria0.31750.454544,616,624
Mongolia0.31010.18663,329,289
Turkey0.310.334185,042,738
Romania0.29750.361519,127,774
Madagascar0.2943028,427,328
Turkmenistan0.29320.54426,117,924
Lithuania0.29010.27482,689,862
Israel0.2830.29068,789,774
Spain0.28160.367946,745,216
San Marino0.28080.08234,017
United States0.2780.6171332,915,073
Papua New Guinea0.27180.64739,119,010
Bahamas0.26420396,913
Taiwan0.2487023,855,010
Russia0.23530.2794145,912,025
Vietnam0.2350.26498,168,833
Slovakia0.23090.15875,460,721
Jamaica0.220802,973,463
Panama0.21760.0679010014,381,579
Croatia0.21020.21814,081,651
Albania0.20860.32212,872,933
Cambodia0.20490.393316,946,438
Azerbaijan0.20320.344310,223,342
Seychelles0.2009098,908
Lesotho0.20070.72892,159,079
Belarus0.19650.30559,442,862
Chile0.18610.414619,212,361
Saudi Arabia0.180.511835,340,683
Egypt0.17930.4419104,258,327
El Salvador0.17810.31816,518,499
Greece0.17680.334710,370,744
Tuvalu0.1629011,931
Germany0.16250.27283,900,473
Poland0.15060.215737,797,005
Hungary0.14920.25389,634,164
Paraguay0.1490.22647,219,638
Slovenia0.14610.13522,078,724
Denmark0.14220.16255,813,298
China0.13790.42631,444,216,107
Lebanon0.12620.34196,769,146
Honduras0.1250.26110,062,991
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.11990.33383,263,466
Armenia0.11950.39252,968,127
Finland0.11190.11735,548,360
Solomon Islands0.1110703,996
Somalia0.10920.613116,359,504
Netherlands0.10530.349917,173,099
Austria0.09940.20679,043,070
Nicaragua0.09360.09176,702,385
Antigua And Barbuda0.0935098,731
Cyprus0.093301,215,584
Australia0.0929025,788,215
United Kingdom0.09010.086968,207,116
Barbados0.08750287,711
Ireland0.08690.09014,982,907
Tonga0.08690106,760
Italy0.0820.280460,367,477
Saint Vincent And The Grenadines0.07860111,263
Colombia0.07740.265151,265,844
Dominica0.0715072,167
Saint Lucia0.07110184,400
Iceland0.06780343,353
Grenada0.06670113,021
Hong Kong0.06207,552,810
Marshall Islands0.06059,610
Czech Republic0.05940.160810,724,555
Costa Rica0.05840.15565,139,052
Sweden0.05830.08510,160,169
Saint Kitts And Nevis0.0582053,544
Norway0.05810.13525,465,630
Eswatini0.05790.37611,172,362
Burundi0.05060.515512,255,433
Kiribati0.04910121,392
Portugal0.04510.281610,167,925
Vanuatu0.04050314,464
Venezuela0.03920.20328,704,954
North Korea0.03920.039225,887,041
Tunisia0.03910.332111,935,766
Malta0.02940442,784
Cuba0.0198011,317,505
Bangladesh0.01830.5628166,303,498
Brazil0.01190.3045213,993,437
Japan0.01190126,050,804
Samoa0.00780200,149
South Korea0.0020.125151,305,186
Argentina00.202845,605,826
Rwanda00.4913,276,513
Haiti0011,541,685
Dominican Republic0010,953,703
Uruguay00.0063,485,151
Comoros00888,451

Most Diverse Countries 2021