Most Diverse Countries 2022

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The world's 7.8 billion people are incredibly diverse. We humans display a dazzling array of languages, customs, religions, races and ethnicities, values, traditions, and more. In light of this massive diversity, it should stand to reason that most countries celebrate not just one, but a wide range of cultures and people groups. But what countries are the most diverse of all?

Cultural diversity and Erkan Gören's study

In 2013, German researcher Erkan Gören released a study titled "Economic Effects of Domestic and Neighbouring Countries' Cultural Diversity", which measured the amount of cultural diversity in 180 countries worldwide. Gören considered the ethnicity and similarity of language between each country's major people groups. Gören reasoned that people groups who shared a language were more likely to also share other aspects of their culture, while groups whose languages were dissimilar probably also had additional significant cultural differences. Gören finished by giving each country a score between 0 and 1, with 1 being the most diverse and 0 being the least diverse.

It's important to note that the goal of Gören's study was not to construct a list of the most racially diverse countries, but to identify the most culturally diverse nations. As such, the study de-emphasizes race (which many modern ethnologists argue is a social construct, not a genetic one) and instead prioritized differences in culture from one group of people to another.

This methodology is important when examining countries such as Brazil. The country's population includes a diverse range of races—however, because virtually all Brazilians of any race speak Portuguese as their primary language, Gören surmised their culture had also become fairly homogenized and ranked Brazil as one of the least culturally diverse.

By comparison, Cameroon boasts approximately 250 indigenous populations and more than 200 local languages, thereby qualifying as highly diverse. In fact, Cameroon's many cultures and religions, along with the peace and tolerance they extend to one another, prompted UNESCO to describe Cameroon as an "example of diversity to the world."

Top 10 Most Culturally Diverse Countries in the World - Gören 2013

  1. Chad - 0.8514
  2. Cameroon - 0.8426
  3. Nigeria - 0.8306
  4. Togo - 0.8118
  5. Congo (Dem. Republic of) - 0.8111
  6. Kenya - 0.8091
  7. Guinea-Bissau - 0.7857
  8. Congo (Republic of) - 0.7764
  9. Ivory Coast - 0.7723
  10. Liberia - 0.7694

By Gören's measure, the world's most culturally diverse country is the African nation of Chad, which counts more than 100 ethnic groups among its 8.6 million residents. Chad is also Africa's fifth-largest country by area, spanning over 495,624 square miles, which has enabled Chad's ethnic groups to live and operate autonomously despite several attempts to unify them. Most of the 100 languages spoken in Chad are Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic in origin and do not overlap with ethnic group identities. Arabic, Sara, and French are common across the country, especially Arabic, an important commercial language.

African countries often rank highly in studies of cultural diversity thanks to their many tribal groups and languages. In fact, Canada is the only western country among the top 20 most diverse countries.

Most Diverse Countries 2022

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Most Diverse Countries 2022

* Index value is the probability of two people selected at random from any one country speaking the same language. 1.0 is most diverse, 0.0 is least diverse.
Country Cultural Diversity Index 2022 Population
Chad0.851417,413,580
Cameroon0.842627,911,548
Nigeria0.8306216,746,934
Togo0.81188,680,837
Kenya0.809156,215,221
Guinea Bissau0.78572,063,367
Republic of the Congo0.77645,797,805
Ivory Coast0.772327,742,298
Liberia0.76945,305,117
Gambia0.76662,558,482
Central African Republic0.74145,016,678
Gabon0.73792,331,533
Tanzania0.735363,298,550
South Africa0.728960,756,135
Guinea0.718213,865,691
Suriname0.7108596,831
Sudan0.696145,992,020
Canada0.692438,388,419
Qatar0.68682,979,915
Benin0.684512,784,726
Pakistan0.682229,488,994
Angola0.672135,027,343
Mali0.671821,473,764
Senegal0.670617,653,671
Zambia0.668119,470,234
Bolivia0.667111,992,656
Mozambique0.657733,089,461
Burkina Faso0.650122,102,838
Ghana0.6532,395,450
Afghanistan0.647840,754,388
Indonesia0.6473279,134,505
Belize0.6436412,190
Niger0.640926,083,660
India0.63671,406,631,776
United Arab Emirates0.624610,081,785
Andorra0.602277,463
Kazakhstan0.597619,205,043
Philippines0.5894112,508,994
Malaysia0.587733,181,072
Malawi0.585820,180,839
Mauritania0.58434,901,981
Peru0.576833,684,208
Bhutan0.5751787,941
Iran0.57586,022,837
Nepal0.571830,225,582
Namibia0.55012,633,874
Fiji0.5459909,466
Eritrea0.54583,662,244
Mexico0.5418131,562,772
Belgium0.537411,668,278
Kuwait0.53074,380,326
Djibouti0.52351,016,097
Guyana0.5198794,045
Latvia0.51681,848,837
Moldova0.51364,013,171
Guatemala0.511218,584,039
Ethiopia0.5067120,812,698
Brunei0.5007445,431
Switzerland0.4968,773,637
Thailand0.495870,078,203
Myanmar0.488955,227,143
Tajikistan0.48869,957,464
Estonia0.48351,321,910
Georgia0.48183,968,738
Ecuador0.4818,113,361
Trinidad And Tobago0.47831,406,585
Luxembourg0.4782642,371
North Macedonia0.46742,081,304
Sierra Leone0.46288,306,436
Bahrain0.45761,783,983
Serbia0.45738,653,016
Jordan0.455810,300,869
Laos0.4497,481,023
Morocco0.444537,772,756
Mauritius0.4351,274,727
Palau0.430118,233
Oman0.41015,323,993
Sri Lanka0.407421,575,842
Syria0.400819,364,809
New Zealand0.39254,898,203
Singapore0.38575,943,546
France0.379965,584,518
Kyrgyzstan0.37476,728,271
Botswana0.3672,441,162
Uganda0.36348,432,863
Iraq0.362742,164,965
Uzbekistan0.356434,382,084
Bulgaria0.35276,844,597
Libya0.34667,040,745
Ukraine0.334943,192,122
Liechtenstein0.327538,387
Equatorial Guinea0.32521,496,662
Zimbabwe0.318715,331,428
Algeria0.317545,350,148
Mongolia0.31013,378,078
Turkey0.3185,561,976
Romania0.297519,031,335
Madagascar0.294329,178,077
Turkmenistan0.29326,201,943
Lithuania0.29012,661,708
Israel0.2838,922,892
Spain0.281646,719,142
San Marino0.280834,085
United States0.278334,805,269
Papua New Guinea0.27189,292,169
Bahamas0.2642400,516
Taiwan0.248723,888,595
Russia0.2353145,805,947
Vietnam0.23598,953,541
Slovakia0.23095,460,193
Jamaica0.22082,985,094
Panama0.21764,446,964
Croatia0.21024,059,286
Albania0.20862,866,374
Cambodia0.204917,168,639
Azerbaijan0.203210,300,205
Seychelles0.200999,426
Lesotho0.20072,175,699
Belarus0.19659,432,800
Chile0.186119,250,195
Saudi Arabia0.1835,844,909
Egypt0.1793106,156,692
El Salvador0.17816,550,389
Greece0.176810,316,637
Tuvalu0.162912,066
Germany0.162583,883,596
Poland0.150637,739,785
Hungary0.14929,606,259
Paraguay0.1497,305,843
Slovenia0.14612,078,034
Denmark0.14225,834,950
China0.13791,448,471,400
Lebanon0.12626,684,849
Honduras0.12510,221,247
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.11993,249,317
Armenia0.11952,971,966
Finland0.11195,554,960
Solomon Islands0.111721,159
Somalia0.109216,841,795
Netherlands0.105317,211,447
Austria0.09949,066,710
Nicaragua0.09366,779,100
Antigua And Barbuda0.093599,509
Cyprus0.09331,223,387
Australia0.092926,068,792
United Kingdom0.090168,497,907
Barbados0.0875288,023
Tonga0.0869107,749
Ireland0.08695,020,199
Italy0.08260,262,770
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines0.0786111,551
Colombia0.077451,512,762
Dominica0.071572,344
Saint Lucia0.0711185,113
Iceland0.0678345,393
Grenada0.0667113,475
Hong Kong0.0627,604,299
Marshall Islands0.0660,057
Czech Republic0.059410,736,784
Costa Rica0.05845,182,354
Sweden0.058310,218,971
Saint Kitts And Nevis0.058253,871
Norway0.05815,511,370
Eswatini0.05791,184,817
Burundi0.050612,624,840
Kiribati0.0491123,419
Portugal0.045110,140,570
Vanuatu0.0405321,832
North Korea0.039225,990,679
Venezuela0.039229,266,991
Tunisia0.039112,046,656
Malta0.0294444,033
Cuba0.019811,305,652
Bangladesh0.0183167,885,689
Japan0.0119125,584,838
Brazil0.0119215,353,593
Samoa0.0078202,239
South Korea0.00251,329,899
Comoros0907,419
Uruguay03,496,016
Dominican Republic011,056,370
Haiti011,680,283
Rwanda013,600,464
Argentina046,010,234

Most Diverse Countries 2022

Sources