Most Diverse Countries 2022

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The world's 7.8 billion people are incredibly diverse. We humans display a dazzling array of languages, customs, religions, races and ethnicities, values, traditions, and more. In light of this massive diversity, it should stand to reason that most countries celebrate not just one, but a wide range of cultures and people groups. But what countries are the most diverse of all?

Cultural diversity and Erkan Gören's study

In 2013, German researcher Erkan Gören released a study titled "Economic Effects of Domestic and Neighbouring Countries' Cultural Diversity", which measured the amount of cultural diversity in 180 countries worldwide. Gören considered the ethnicity and similarity of language between each country's major people groups. Gören reasoned that people groups who shared a language were more likely to also share other aspects of their culture, while groups whose languages were dissimilar probably also had additional significant cultural differences. Gören finished by giving each country a score between 0 and 1, with 1 being the most diverse and 0 being the least diverse.

It's important to note that the goal of Gören's study was not to construct a list of the most racially diverse countries, but to identify the most culturally diverse nations. As such, the study de-emphasizes race (which many modern ethnologists argue is a social construct, not a genetic one) and instead prioritized differences in culture from one group of people to another.

This methodology is important when examining countries such as Brazil. The country's population includes a diverse range of races—however, because virtually all Brazilians of any race speak Portuguese as their primary language, Gören surmised their culture had also become fairly homogenized and ranked Brazil as one of the least culturally diverse.

By comparison, Cameroon boasts approximately 250 indigenous populations and more than 200 local languages, thereby qualifying as highly diverse. In fact, Cameroon's many cultures and religions, along with the peace and tolerance they extend to one another, prompted UNESCO to describe Cameroon as an "example of diversity to the world."

Top 10 Most Culturally Diverse Countries in the World - Gören 2013

  1. Chad - 0.8514
  2. Cameroon - 0.8426
  3. Nigeria - 0.8306
  4. Togo - 0.8118
  5. Congo (Dem. Republic of) - 0.8111
  6. Kenya - 0.8091
  7. Guinea-Bissau - 0.7857
  8. Congo (Republic of) - 0.7764
  9. Ivory Coast - 0.7723
  10. Liberia - 0.7694

By Gören's measure, the world's most culturally diverse country is the African nation of Chad, which counts more than 100 ethnic groups among its 8.6 million residents. Chad is also Africa's fifth-largest country by area, spanning over 495,624 square miles, which has enabled Chad's ethnic groups to live and operate autonomously despite several attempts to unify them. Most of the 100 languages spoken in Chad are Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic in origin and do not overlap with ethnic group identities. Arabic, Sara, and French are common across the country, especially Arabic, an important commercial language.

African countries often rank highly in studies of cultural diversity thanks to their many tribal groups and languages. In fact, Canada is the only western country among the top 20 most diverse countries.

Most Diverse Countries 2022

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Most Diverse Countries 2022

* Index value is the probability of two people selected at random from any one country speaking the same language. 1.0 is most diverse, 0.0 is least diverse.
Country Cultural Diversity Index 2022 Population
Chad0.851417,723,315
Cameroon0.842627,914,536
Nigeria0.8306218,541,212
Togo0.81188,848,699
Kenya0.809154,027,487
Guinea Bissau0.78572,105,566
Republic of the Congo0.77645,970,424
Ivory Coast0.772328,160,542
Liberia0.76945,302,681
Gambia0.76662,705,992
Central African Republic0.74145,579,144
Gabon0.73792,388,992
Tanzania0.735365,497,748
South Africa0.728959,893,885
Guinea0.718213,859,341
Suriname0.7108618,040
Sudan0.696146,874,204
Canada0.692438,454,327
Qatar0.68682,695,122
Benin0.684513,352,864
Pakistan0.682235,824,862
Angola0.672135,588,987
Mali0.671822,593,590
Senegal0.670617,316,449
Zambia0.668120,017,675
Bolivia0.667112,224,110
Mozambique0.657732,969,518
Burkina Faso0.650122,673,762
Ghana0.6533,475,870
Afghanistan0.647841,128,771
Indonesia0.6473275,501,339
Belize0.6436405,272
Niger0.640926,207,977
India0.63671,417,173,173
United Arab Emirates0.62469,441,129
Andorra0.602279,824
Kazakhstan0.597619,397,998
Philippines0.5894115,559,009
Malaysia0.587733,938,221
Malawi0.585820,405,317
Mauritania0.58434,736,139
Peru0.576834,049,588
Bhutan0.5751782,455
Iran0.57588,550,570
Nepal0.571830,547,580
Namibia0.55012,567,012
Fiji0.5459929,766
Eritrea0.54583,684,032
Mexico0.5418127,504,125
Belgium0.537411,655,930
Kuwait0.53074,268,873
Djibouti0.52351,120,849
Guyana0.5198808,726
Latvia0.51681,850,651
Moldova0.51363,272,996
Guatemala0.511217,843,908
Ethiopia0.5067123,379,924
Brunei0.5007449,002
Switzerland0.4968,740,472
Thailand0.495871,697,030
Myanmar0.488954,179,306
Tajikistan0.48869,952,787
Estonia0.48351,326,062
Georgia0.48183,744,385
Ecuador0.4818,001,000
Trinidad And Tobago0.47831,531,044
Luxembourg0.4782647,599
North Macedonia0.46742,093,599
Sierra Leone0.46288,605,718
Bahrain0.45761,472,233
Serbia0.45737,221,365
Jordan0.455811,285,869
Laos0.4497,529,475
Morocco0.444537,457,971
Mauritius0.4351,299,469
Palau0.430118,055
Oman0.41014,576,298
Sri Lanka0.407421,832,143
Syria0.400822,125,249
New Zealand0.39255,185,288
Singapore0.38575,975,689
France0.379964,626,628
Kyrgyzstan0.37476,630,623
Botswana0.3672,630,296
Uganda0.36347,249,585
Iraq0.362744,496,122
Uzbekistan0.356434,627,652
Bulgaria0.35276,781,953
Libya0.34666,812,341
Ukraine0.334939,701,739
Liechtenstein0.327539,327
Equatorial Guinea0.32521,674,908
Zimbabwe0.318716,320,537
Algeria0.317544,903,225
Mongolia0.31013,398,366
Turkey0.3185,341,241
Romania0.297519,659,267
Madagascar0.294329,611,714
Turkmenistan0.29326,430,770
Lithuania0.29012,750,055
Israel0.2839,038,309
Spain0.281647,558,630
San Marino0.280833,660
United States0.278338,289,857
Papua New Guinea0.271810,142,619
Bahamas0.2642409,984
Taiwan0.248723,893,394
Russia0.2353144,713,314
Vietnam0.23598,186,856
Slovakia0.23095,643,453
Jamaica0.22082,827,377
Panama0.21764,408,581
Croatia0.21024,030,358
Albania0.20862,842,321
Cambodia0.204916,767,842
Azerbaijan0.203210,358,074
Seychelles0.2009107,118
Lesotho0.20072,305,825
Belarus0.19659,534,954
Chile0.186119,603,733
Saudi Arabia0.1836,408,820
Egypt0.1793110,990,103
El Salvador0.17816,336,392
Greece0.176810,384,971
Tuvalu0.162911,312
Germany0.162583,369,843
Poland0.150639,857,145
Hungary0.14929,967,308
Paraguay0.1496,780,744
Slovenia0.14612,119,844
Denmark0.14225,882,261
China0.13791,425,887,337
Lebanon0.12625,489,739
Honduras0.12510,432,860
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.11993,233,526
Armenia0.11952,780,469
Finland0.11195,540,745
Solomon Islands0.111724,273
Somalia0.109217,597,511
Netherlands0.105317,564,014
Austria0.09948,939,617
Nicaragua0.09366,948,392
Antigua And Barbuda0.093593,763
Cyprus0.09331,251,488
Australia0.092926,177,413
United Kingdom0.090167,508,936
Barbados0.0875281,635
Ireland0.08695,023,109
Tonga0.0869106,858
Italy0.08259,037,474
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines0.0786103,948
Colombia0.077451,874,024
Dominica0.071572,737
Saint Lucia0.0711179,857
Iceland0.0678372,899
Grenada0.0667125,438
Hong Kong0.0627,488,865
Marshall Islands0.0641,569
Czech Republic0.059410,493,986
Costa Rica0.05845,180,829
Sweden0.058310,549,347
Saint Kitts And Nevis0.058247,657
Norway0.05815,434,319
Eswatini0.05791,201,670
Burundi0.050612,889,576
Kiribati0.0491131,232
Portugal0.045110,270,865
Vanuatu0.0405326,740
Venezuela0.039228,301,696
North Korea0.039226,069,416
Tunisia0.039112,356,117
Malta0.0294533,286
Cuba0.019811,212,191
Bangladesh0.0183171,186,372
Brazil0.0119215,313,498
Japan0.0119123,951,692
Samoa0.0078222,382
South Korea0.00251,815,810
Argentina045,510,318
Rwanda013,776,698
Haiti011,584,996
Dominican Republic011,228,821
Uruguay03,422,794
Comoros0836,774

Most Diverse Countries 2022

Sources