Back in the year 1095, a series of wars that are now known as the Crusades began to unfold in and around the Holy Land. Taking place during the Medieval Era, the First Crusade began in 1095 and lasted for four years until the warfare ceased in 1099. Following the First Crusade, the Second Crusade began in 1144. The Third Crusade came to life in about 1187, while the Fourth Crusade is noted as beginning in the year 1202. There were six wars to follow, and all of the related wars had ended by the year 1272.
The First Crusade took place over four years from 1095 to 1099. The leader was Count Raymond IV of Toulouse. The Second Crusade lasted 11 years, from 1144 to 1155, and was led by the Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad III, and the King of France, King Louis VII. The Third Crusade took place from 1187 to 1192, led by the Holy Roman Emperpr, Frederick I, the Lionheart of England, and Richard Philip the Second of France.
The Fourth Crusade lasted two years, from 1202 to 1204, and was led by Fulk of Neuil French. In 1212, the Children's Crusade was led by Stephen of Cloyes and lasted less than a year. Five years later, the Fifth Crusade took place, lasting from 1217 to 1221. Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne, and King Andrew II of Hungary led the Fifth Crusade. The Sixth Crusade lasted less than a year, starting 1228 and ending in 1229. It was led by the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II.
The Seventh Crusade took place from 1248 to 1252, lasting six years, and was led by the King of France, Louis IX. The Eighth Crusade happened in 1270, lastinhg less than a year, and was also les by Louis IX. The Ninth Crusade was short as well, lasting less than a year from 1271 to 1272, and was led by the prince, then King, of England, Edward I.
There are four Crusader States: the County of Edessa, the County of Tripoli, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the Principality of Antioch. The primary goal of the Crusades as a whole was to affirm that the lands overrun by Christians remained in the hands of this religious group of people. After consuming and overpowering the people who lived in these regions, the Christian soldiers wanted to stake their claims over the people and the land, probably for the sake of influence, to some degree.
You may be wondering what happened to start the Crusades in general, and that is actually a very legitimate, reasonable question. In the year of 1095, a powerful group of Muslim Seljuk Turkish individuals were making their way towards Jerusalem City. The emperor of Byzantine at the time was a man by the name of Alexious I Komneenos, and when he came to understand that the Turks were on the way over, he pleaded with for help. Western leaders The pope at the time was Pope Urban II, and he was so adamant about supporting Byzamtine Empire emperor, Alexios, because the Muslim Seljuk Turks had captured the city of Jerusalem, which displayed just how powerful and capable that army of men were. The seizing of Jerusalem took place in the year 1087 CE, and by 1095 CE, Pople Urban II released an army of over sixty thousand men, as well as upwards of six thousand knights. The First Crusade took place following the pope's Council of Clermont rally.
Nowadays, the Crusader States are located in modern-day Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey. But during the years in which the Crusades were unfolding, the Crusader States were inclusive of four main locations. Let's talk about the four Crusader states in greater detail.
The Crusaders were flowing in from Western Europe, and the goal of these religiously-affiliated Western Europeans was to regain control of the areas now occupied by government officials, and they began with successfully capturing Jerusalem. After taking back control of the Holy City, the Crusaders made their way to other parts of nearby areas, which resulted in the four Crusader states.
First, they took control of the County of Edessa. The Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the County of Tripoli followed in succession in that chronological order. The Crusader states were one of the first instances in which Europeans were in control of land beyond their own continent, given the nature of these areas and their positioning outside of Europe.
The County of Edessa was gripped onto by Crusaders in 1098. Their power over the region was lost in 1149. Edessa was land that is now part of modern-day Turkey. Crusaders invaded and seized the County of Tripoli in 1104. Ultimately, by the year 1289, the Crusaders were forced to abandon the County of Tripoli. The County of Tripoli was comprised of land now thought to be parts of Lebanon, Syria, and Tripoli.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was taken over by Crusaders in the year 1099. Crusaders kept hold of the Kingdom of Jerusalem until the year 1291, at which point a city called Acre fell and the Crusaders were forced to flee. Within the Kingdom of Jerusalem were four places referred to as lordships. These lordships were named the County of Jaffa and Ascalon, the Lordship of Oultrejordain, the Lordship of Sidon, and the Principality of Galilee. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was in place for just under two hundred years, but when the Mamluks came into the picture in the year 1291, the hold that the Crusaders once had on the Kingdom of Jerusalem was no more. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was invaded during the Third Crusade in 1192, as well as once more following the Sixth Crusade.
Just like the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch was seized by Crusaders in 1098, but that power did not last forever. Crusaders relinquished their hold on the area in 1268. As the smallest Crusader state by comparison of total area values, the Principality of Antioch comprised parts of Syria and Turkey as we know them to be today.