Gini Coefficient by Country 2020

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Population

< 0.5

> 0.5

> 0.55

> 0.6

> 0.65

> 0.7

> 0.75

> 0.8

> 0.85

> 0.9

> 0.95

The Gini coefficient, sometimes called the Gini Index or Gini ratio, is a statistical measure of distribution intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation. The Gini coefficient was developed by Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912 and is the most commonly used measurement of wealth or income inequality.

The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (0%) to 1 (100%), with 0 representing perfect equality and 1 representing perfect inequality. A higher Gini coefficient means greater inequality. If every resident of a nation had the same income, the Gini coefficient would be zero. If one resident earned all of the income in a nation and the rest earned zero, the Gini coefficient would be 1.

Mathematically, the Gini coefficient is defined based on the Lorenz curve. The Lorenz curve plots the percentiles of the population on the graph's horizontal axis according to income or wealth, whichever is being measured. The cumulative income or wealth of the population is plotted on the vertical axis.

While the Gini coefficient is a useful tool for analyzing the wealth or income distribution in a country, it should not indicate a country's overall wealth or income. Some of the world's poorest countries, such as the Central African Republic, have some of the highest Gini coefficients (61.3 in this case). A high-income country and a low-income country can have the same Gini coefficients. Additionally, due to limitations such as reliable GDP and income data, the Gini index may overstate income inequality and be inaccurate.

Income inequality has political and economic impacts such as slower GDP growth, reduced income mobility, greater household debt, political polarization, and higher poverty rates.

According to World Bank's Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2020 report, the Gini coefficient increases about 1.5 points in the five years following major epidemics, such as H1N1 (2009), Ebola (2014), and Zika (2016). The Gini coefficient saw sustained growth during the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1820, the Gini coefficient was 0.50 and in 1980 and 1992, the figure was 0.657.

The countries with the highest Gini coefficients are:

  1. Lesotho (0.632)
  2. South Africa (0.625)
  3. Haiti (0.608)
  4. Botswana (0.605)
  5. Namibia (0.597)
  6. Zambia (0.575)
  7. Comoros (0.559)
  8. Hong Kong (0.539)
  9. Guatemala (0.530)
  10. Paraguay (0.517)

South Africa is one of the world's most unequal countries, with a Gini coefficient of 0.625. In 2005, the Gini coefficient was even higher, at 0.650. In South Africa, the richest 10% hold 71% of the wealth, while the poorest 60% hold just 7% of the wealth. Additionally, more than half of South Africa's population, about 55.5%, live in poverty, earning less than $83 per month.

The United States has a Gini coefficient of 0.480. In 1990, the Gini coefficient was 0.43, indicating an overall increase in income inequality over the last 30 years. In 2015, the top 1% of earners in the United States averaged 40 times more income than the bottom 90%. In the U.S., poverty is an increasing issue, with about 33 million workers earn less than $10 per hour, putting a family of four below the poverty level. Many of these low-wage workers have no sick days, pension, or health insurance.

Many European countries have some of the lowest Gini coefficients, such as Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, Belgium, and Norway. Inequality is generally lower in European nations than it is in non-European nations. The Nordic countries and Central Eastern European countries are among the most equal countries.

Gini Coefficient by Country 2020

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Gini Coefficient by Country 2020

Country Gini Index Population 2020
Netherlands0.90217,134,872
Russia0.879145,934,462
Sweden0.86710,099,265
Brazil0.849212,559,417
Ukraine0.84743,733,762
Thailand0.84669,799,978
Denmark0.8385,792,202
Philippines0.837109,581,078
Saudi Arabia0.83434,813,871
Indonesia0.833273,523,615
Suriname0.832586,632
India0.8321,380,004,385
Bahamas0.828393,244
Grenada0.827112,523
Dominica0.82371,986
Antigua And Barbuda0.82397,929
Lebanon0.8196,825,445
Saint Vincent And The Grenadines0.818110,940
Germany0.81683,783,942
Nigeria0.809206,139,589
South Africa0.80659,308,690
Lesotho0.8052,142,249
Belize0.803397,628
Cyprus0.8011,207,359
Haiti0.80111,402,528
Botswana0.82,351,627
Norway0.7985,421,241
Zambia0.79818,383,955
Chile0.79819,116,201
Yemen0.79829,825,964
Ireland0.7964,937,786
United Arab Emirates0.7969,890,402
Malaysia0.79632,365,999
Laos0.7947,275,560
Turkey0.79484,339,067
Equatorial Guinea0.7931,402,985
Latvia0.7891,886,198
Namibia0.7882,540,905
Peru0.78832,971,854
Brunei0.787437,479
Oman0.7865,106,626
Comoros0.783869,601
Panama0.784,314,767
Barbados0.778287,375
Central African Republic0.7774,829,767
Hong Kong0.7777,496,981
Israel0.7778,655,535
Mexico0.777128,932,753
Jamaica0.7752,961,167
Kazakhstan0.77218,776,707
Gambia0.7712,416,668
Colombia0.7750,882,891
Republic Of The Congo0.7695,518,087
Paraguay0.7687,132,538
Argentina0.76845,195,774
Papua New Guinea0.7668,947,024
Morocco0.76636,910,560
Bolivia0.76411,673,021
Kuwait0.7634,270,571
Vietnam0.76197,338,579
Nicaragua0.7596,624,554
Ecuador0.75917,643,054
Singapore0.7575,850,342
Egypt0.756102,334,404
Dr Congo0.75589,561,403
Malawi0.75119,129,952
Taiwan0.75123,816,775
Costa Rica0.755,094,118
Algeria0.74943,851,044
Samoa0.747198,414
Bahrain0.7471,701,575
United Kingdom0.74667,886,011
Kenya0.74553,771,296
El Salvador0.7436,486,205
Cameroon0.74326,545,863
Venezuela0.74328,435,940
Finland0.7425,540,720
Rwanda0.74212,952,218
Guinea0.74113,132,795
Austria0.7399,006,398
Guyana0.734786,552
Togo0.7348,278,724
Trinidad And Tobago0.7321,399,488
Angola0.73132,866,272
Chad0.7316,425,864
Saint Lucia0.729183,627
Djibouti0.729988,000
Uganda0.72945,741,007
Canada0.72837,742,154
Liberia0.7275,057,681
Senegal0.72616,743,927
Czech Republic0.72510,708,981
Maldives0.724540,544
Madagascar0.72227,691,018
Uruguay0.7213,473,730
Gabon0.7192,225,734
Zimbabwe0.71914,862,924
Cambodia0.71816,718,965
Estonia0.7161,326,535
Mozambique0.71631,255,435
Guinea Bissau0.7121,968,001
Nepal0.7129,136,808
Benin0.70712,123,200
Mali0.70720,250,833
Switzerland0.7058,654,622
Tunisia0.70511,818,619
Iran0.70583,992,949
Aruba0.703106,766
Fiji0.702896,445
China0.7021,439,323,776
Solomon Islands0.7686,884
Sri Lanka0.721,413,249
Syria0.69917,500,658
Ghana0.69931,072,940
Jordan0.69610,203,134
France0.69665,273,511
Iceland0.694341,243
Sierra Leone0.6947,976,983
Spain0.69446,754,778
Portugal0.69210,196,709
Vanuatu0.688307,145
Burkina Faso0.68820,903,273
Georgia0.6873,989,167
Sudan0.68743,849,260
Tonga0.682105,695
Niger0.68224,206,644
Mauritania0.6814,649,658
Kyrgyzstan0.6816,524,195
Burundi0.68111,890,784
Bangladesh0.678164,689,383
Poland0.67737,846,611
Serbia0.6768,737,371
Sao Tome And Principe0.674219,159
New Zealand0.6724,822,233
Luxembourg0.67625,978
South Korea0.6751,269,185
Italy0.66960,461,826
Mongolia0.6683,278,290
Pakistan0.665220,892,340
Lithuania0.6632,722,289
Armenia0.6632,963,243
Hungary0.6639,660,351
Mauritius0.6621,271,768
Slovenia0.6622,078,938
Tanzania0.66159,734,218
Libya0.6596,871,292
Bulgaria0.6596,948,445
Tajikistan0.6569,537,645
Australia0.65625,499,884
Afghanistan0.65538,928,346
Azerbaijan0.65410,139,177
Greece0.65410,423,054
Montenegro0.648628,066
Romania0.64719,237,691
Moldova0.6454,033,963
Croatia0.6454,105,267
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.6423,280,819
Malta0.64441,543
Albania0.6372,877,797
Qatar0.6332,881,053
Iraq0.63340,222,493
Turkmenistan0.636,031,200
Japan0.626126,476,461
Eritrea0.6213,546,421
Belarus0.6219,449,323
Ethiopia0.62114,963,588
Belgium0.60311,589,623
Myanmar0.59754,409,800
Timor Leste0.5651,318,445
Slovakia0.4985,459,642
United States0.48331,002,651