Gini Coefficient By Country 2021

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The Gini coefficient, also called the Gini Index or Gini ratio, is a statistical measure of distribution intended to represent the income or wealth distribution. The Gini coefficient was developed by Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912 and is the most commonly used measurement of wealth or income inequality.

The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (0%) to 1 (100%), with 0 representing perfect equality and 1 representing perfect inequality. A higher Gini coefficient means greater inequality. If every resident of a nation had the same income, the Gini coefficient would be zero. If one resident earned all of the income in a nation and the rest earned zero, the Gini coefficient would be 1.

Mathematically, the Gini coefficient is defined based on the Lorenz curve. The Lorenz curve plots the percentiles of the population on the graph's horizontal axis according to income or wealth, whichever is being measured. The cumulative income or wealth of the population is plotted on the vertical axis.

While the Gini coefficient is a useful tool for analyzing the wealth or income distribution in a country, it should not indicate its overall wealth or income. Some of the world's poorest countries, such as the Central African Republic, have some of the highest Gini coefficients (61.3 in this case). A high-income country and a low-income country can have the same Gini coefficients. Additionally, due to limitations such as reliable GDP and income data, the Gini index may overstate income inequality and be inaccurate.

Income inequality has political and economic impacts such as slower GDP growth, reduced income mobility, greater household debt, political polarization, and higher poverty rates.

According to World Bank's Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2020 report, the Gini coefficient increases about 1.5 points in the five years following major epidemics, such as H1N1 (2009), Ebola (2014), and Zika (2016). The Gini coefficient saw sustained growth during the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1820, the Gini coefficient was 0.50, and in 1980 and 1992, the figure was 0.657.

The countries with the highest Gini coefficients are:

  1. South Africa - 63.0
  2. Namibia - 59.1
  3. Zambia - 57.1
  4. Sao Tome and Principe - 56.3
  5. Eswatini - 54.6
  6. Mozambique - 54.0
  7. Brazil - 53.9
  8. Hong Kong - 53.9
  9. Botswana - 53.3
  10. Honduras - 52.1

South Africa is one of the world's most unequal countries, with a Gini coefficient of 63.0. In 2005, the Gini coefficient was even higher, at 65.0. In South Africa, the richest 10% hold 71% of the wealth, while the poorest 60% hold just 7% of the wealth. Additionally, more than half of South Africa's population, about 55.5%, live in poverty, earning less than $83 per month.

The United States has a Gini coefficient of 0.480. In 1990, the Gini coefficient was 41.1, indicating an overall increase in income inequality over the last 30 years. In 2015, the top 1% of earners in the United States averaged 40 times more income than the bottom 90%. In the U.S., poverty is an increasing issue, with about 33 million workers earn less than $10 per hour, putting a family of four below the poverty level. Many of these low-wage workers have no sick days, pension, or health insurance.

Many European countries have some of the lowest Gini coefficients, such as Slovenia, Czechia, Slovakia, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Inequality is generally lower in European nations than it is in non-European nations. The Nordic countries and Central Eastern European countries are among the most equal countries.

Gini Coefficient By Country 2021

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Gini Coefficient By Country 2021

Country Gini Index 2021 Population
South Africa6360,041,994
Namibia59.12,587,344
Zambia57.118,920,651
Sao Tome And Principe56.3223,368
Eswatini54.61,172,362
Mozambique5432,163,047
Hong Kong53.97,552,810
Brazil53.9213,993,437
Botswana53.32,397,241
Honduras52.110,062,991
Angola51.333,933,610
Saint Lucia51.2184,400
Papua New Guinea50.99,119,010
Guinea Bissau50.72,015,494
Colombia50.451,265,844
Panama49.24,381,579
Republic Of The Congo48.95,657,013
Guatemala48.318,249,860
Costa Rica485,139,052
Benin47.812,451,040
Seychelles46.898,908
Cameroon46.527,224,265
Nicaragua46.26,702,385
Paraguay46.27,219,638
South Sudan4611,381,378
Singapore45.95,896,686
Saudi Arabia45.935,340,683
Ecuador45.417,888,475
Comoros45.3888,451
Lesotho44.92,159,079
Malawi44.719,647,684
Guyana44.6790,326
Chile44.419,212,361
Philippines44.4111,046,913
Zimbabwe44.315,092,171
Dominican Republic43.710,953,703
Rwanda43.713,276,513
Central African Republic43.64,919,981
Ghana43.531,732,129
Chad43.316,914,985
Togo43.18,478,250
Peru42.833,359,418
Uganda42.847,123,531
Madagascar42.628,427,328
Bolivia42.211,832,940
Dr Congo42.192,377,993
Turkey41.985,042,738
Djibouti41.61,002,187
Ivory Coast41.527,053,629
Argentina41.445,605,826
Qatar41.12,930,528
Haiti41.111,541,685
United States41.1332,915,073
Malaysia4132,776,194
Turkmenistan40.86,117,924
Kenya40.854,985,698
Iran40.885,028,759
Tanzania40.561,498,437
Bulgaria40.46,896,663
Senegal40.317,196,301
Micronesia40.1116,254
Mali40.120,855,735
Sri Lanka39.821,497,310
Uruguay39.73,485,151
Morocco39.537,344,795
Tuvalu39.111,931
Montenegro39628,053
Israel398,789,774
Venezuela3928,704,954
Samoa38.7200,149
El Salvador38.66,518,499
Burundi38.612,255,433
China38.51,444,216,107
Gabon382,278,825
Cambodia37.916,946,438
Indonesia37.8276,361,783
Tonga37.6106,760
Vanuatu37.6314,464
Russia37.5145,912,025
Bhutan37.4779,898
Lithuania37.32,689,862
Solomon Islands37.1703,996
Mauritius36.81,273,433
Uzbekistan36.833,935,763
Mexico36.8130,262,216
Fiji36.7902,906
Yemen36.730,490,640
Georgia36.43,979,765
Laos36.47,379,358
Thailand36.469,950,850
New Zealand36.24,860,643
Serbia36.28,697,550
Falkland Islands363,533
Romania3619,127,774
Italy35.960,367,477
Sierra Leone35.78,141,343
Vietnam35.798,168,833
India35.71,393,409,038
Latvia35.61,866,942
South Korea35.451,305,186
Liberia35.35,180,203
Burkina Faso35.321,497,096
Nigeria35.1211,400,708
Macau35658,394
Jamaica352,973,463
Ethiopia35117,876,227
Luxembourg34.9634,814
United Kingdom34.868,207,116
Spain34.746,745,216
Armenia34.42,968,127
Greece34.410,370,744
Australia34.425,788,215
Niger34.325,130,817
Sudan34.244,909,353
Tajikistan349,749,627
Greenland33.956,877
Portugal33.810,167,925
Azerbaijan33.710,223,342
Jordan33.710,269,021
Guinea33.713,497,244
Taiwan33.623,855,010
Pakistan33.5225,199,937
Canada33.338,067,903
Albania33.22,872,933
Bosnia And Herzegovina333,263,466
Japan32.9126,050,804
Ireland32.84,982,907
Tunisia32.811,935,766
Nepal32.829,674,920
Mongolia32.73,329,289
Switzerland32.78,715,494
Mauritania32.64,775,119
United Arab Emirates32.59,991,089
Bangladesh32.4166,303,498
Germany31.983,900,473
Lebanon31.86,769,146
France31.665,426,179
Egypt31.5104,258,327
Cyprus31.41,215,584
Maldives31.3543,617
Hungary30.69,634,164
Estonia30.41,325,185
Croatia30.44,081,651
Austria29.79,043,070
Poland29.737,797,005
Iraq29.541,179,350
Afghanistan29.439,835,428
Malta29.2442,784
Sweden28.810,160,169
Timor Leste28.71,343,873
Denmark28.75,813,298
Netherlands28.517,173,099
Kyrgyzstan27.76,628,356
Kazakhstan27.518,994,962
Finland27.45,548,360
Belgium27.411,632,326
Algeria27.444,616,624
Norway275,465,630
Iceland26.8343,353
Ukraine26.143,466,819
Moldova25.74,024,019
Slovakia25.25,460,721
Belarus25.29,442,862
Slovenia24.22,078,724
Faroe Islands22.749,049

Gini Coefficient By Country 2021