Gini Coefficient by Country 2021

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Population

< 0.50

> 0.50

> 0.55

> 0.60

> 0.65

> 0.70

> 0.75

> 0.80

> 0.85

> 0.90

> 0.95

The Gini coefficient, sometimes called the Gini Index or Gini ratio, is a statistical measure of distribution intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation. The Gini coefficient was developed by Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912 and is the most commonly used measurement of wealth or income inequality.

The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (0%) to 1 (100%), with 0 representing perfect equality and 1 representing perfect inequality. A higher Gini coefficient means greater inequality. If every resident of a nation had the same income, the Gini coefficient would be zero. If one resident earned all of the income in a nation and the rest earned zero, the Gini coefficient would be 1.

Mathematically, the Gini coefficient is defined based on the Lorenz curve. The Lorenz curve plots the percentiles of the population on the graph's horizontal axis according to income or wealth, whichever is being measured. The cumulative income or wealth of the population is plotted on the vertical axis.

While the Gini coefficient is a useful tool for analyzing the wealth or income distribution in a country, it should not indicate a country's overall wealth or income. Some of the world's poorest countries, such as the Central African Republic, have some of the highest Gini coefficients (61.3 in this case). A high-income country and a low-income country can have the same Gini coefficients. Additionally, due to limitations such as reliable GDP and income data, the Gini index may overstate income inequality and be inaccurate.

Income inequality has political and economic impacts such as slower GDP growth, reduced income mobility, greater household debt, political polarization, and higher poverty rates.

According to World Bank's Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2020 report, the Gini coefficient increases about 1.5 points in the five years following major epidemics, such as H1N1 (2009), Ebola (2014), and Zika (2016). The Gini coefficient saw sustained growth during the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1820, the Gini coefficient was 0.50 and in 1980 and 1992, the figure was 0.657.

The countries with the highest Gini coefficients are:

  1. Lesotho (0.632)
  2. South Africa (0.625)
  3. Haiti (0.608)
  4. Botswana (0.605)
  5. Namibia (0.597)
  6. Zambia (0.575)
  7. Comoros (0.559)
  8. Hong Kong (0.539)
  9. Guatemala (0.530)
  10. Paraguay (0.517)

South Africa is one of the world's most unequal countries, with a Gini coefficient of 0.625. In 2005, the Gini coefficient was even higher, at 0.650. In South Africa, the richest 10% hold 71% of the wealth, while the poorest 60% hold just 7% of the wealth. Additionally, more than half of South Africa's population, about 55.5%, live in poverty, earning less than $83 per month.

The United States has a Gini coefficient of 0.480. In 1990, the Gini coefficient was 0.43, indicating an overall increase in income inequality over the last 30 years. In 2015, the top 1% of earners in the United States averaged 40 times more income than the bottom 90%. In the U.S., poverty is an increasing issue, with about 33 million workers earn less than $10 per hour, putting a family of four below the poverty level. Many of these low-wage workers have no sick days, pension, or health insurance.

Many European countries have some of the lowest Gini coefficients, such as Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, Belgium, and Norway. Inequality is generally lower in European nations than it is in non-European nations. The Nordic countries and Central Eastern European countries are among the most equal countries.

Gini Coefficient by Country 2021

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Gini Coefficient by Country 2021

Country Gini Index Population 2021
Netherlands0.90217,173,099
Russia0.879145,912,025
Sweden0.86710,160,169
Brazil0.849213,993,437
Ukraine0.84743,466,819
Thailand0.84669,950,850
Denmark0.8385,813,298
Philippines0.837111,046,913
Saudi Arabia0.83435,340,683
Indonesia0.833276,361,783
Suriname0.832591,800
India0.8321,393,409,038
Bahamas0.828396,913
Grenada0.827113,021
Dominica0.82372,167
Antigua And Barbuda0.82398,731
Lebanon0.8196,769,146
Saint Vincent And The Grenadines0.818111,263
Germany0.81683,900,473
Nigeria0.809211,400,708
South Africa0.80660,041,994
Lesotho0.8052,159,079
Belize0.803404,914
Cyprus0.8011,215,584
Haiti0.80111,541,685
Botswana0.82,397,241
Norway0.7985,465,630
Zambia0.79818,920,651
Chile0.79819,212,361
Yemen0.79830,490,640
Ireland0.7964,982,907
United Arab Emirates0.7969,991,089
Malaysia0.79632,776,194
Laos0.7947,379,358
Turkey0.79485,042,738
Equatorial Guinea0.7931,449,896
Latvia0.7891,866,942
Namibia0.7882,587,344
Peru0.78833,359,418
Brunei0.787441,532
Oman0.7865,223,375
Comoros0.783888,451
Panama0.784,381,579
Barbados0.778287,711
Central African Republic0.7774,919,981
Hong Kong0.7777,552,810
Israel0.7778,789,774
Mexico0.777130,262,216
Jamaica0.7752,973,463
Kazakhstan0.77218,994,962
Gambia0.7712,486,945
Colombia0.7751,265,844
Republic Of The Congo0.7695,657,013
Paraguay0.7687,219,638
Argentina0.76845,605,826
Papua New Guinea0.7669,119,010
Morocco0.76637,344,795
Bolivia0.76411,832,940
Kuwait0.7634,328,550
Vietnam0.76198,168,833
Nicaragua0.7596,702,385
Ecuador0.75917,888,475
Singapore0.7575,896,686
Egypt0.756104,258,327
Dr Congo0.75592,377,993
Malawi0.75119,647,684
Taiwan0.75123,855,010
Costa Rica0.755,139,052
Algeria0.74944,616,624
Samoa0.747200,149
Bahrain0.7471,748,296
United Kingdom0.74668,207,116
Kenya0.74554,985,698
El Salvador0.7436,518,499
Cameroon0.74327,224,265
Venezuela0.74328,704,954
Finland0.7425,548,360
Rwanda0.74213,276,513
Guinea0.74113,497,244
Austria0.7399,043,070
Guyana0.734790,326
Togo0.7348,478,250
Trinidad And Tobago0.7321,403,375
Angola0.73133,933,610
Chad0.7316,914,985
Saint Lucia0.729184,400
Djibouti0.7291,002,187
Uganda0.72947,123,531
Canada0.72838,067,903
Liberia0.7275,180,203
Senegal0.72617,196,301
Czech Republic0.72510,724,555
Maldives0.724543,617
Madagascar0.72228,427,328
Uruguay0.7213,485,151
Gabon0.7192,278,825
Zimbabwe0.71915,092,171
Cambodia0.71816,946,438
Estonia0.7161,325,185
Mozambique0.71632,163,047
Guinea Bissau0.7122,015,494
Nepal0.7129,674,920
Benin0.70712,451,040
Mali0.70720,855,735
Switzerland0.7058,715,494
Tunisia0.70511,935,766
Iran0.70585,028,759
Aruba0.703107,204
Fiji0.702902,906
China0.7021,444,216,107
Solomon Islands0.7703,996
Sri Lanka0.721,497,310
Syria0.69918,275,702
Ghana0.69931,732,129
Jordan0.69610,269,021
France0.69665,426,179
Iceland0.694343,353
Sierra Leone0.6948,141,343
Spain0.69446,745,216
Portugal0.69210,167,925
Vanuatu0.688314,464
Burkina Faso0.68821,497,096
Georgia0.6873,979,765
Sudan0.68744,909,353
Tonga0.682106,760
Niger0.68225,130,817
Mauritania0.6814,775,119
Kyrgyzstan0.6816,628,356
Burundi0.68112,255,433
Bangladesh0.678166,303,498
Poland0.67737,797,005
Serbia0.6768,697,550
Sao Tome And Principe0.674223,368
New Zealand0.6724,860,643
Luxembourg0.67634,814
South Korea0.6751,305,186
Italy0.66960,367,477
Mongolia0.6683,329,289
Pakistan0.665225,199,937
Lithuania0.6632,689,862
Armenia0.6632,968,127
Hungary0.6639,634,164
Mauritius0.6621,273,433
Slovenia0.6622,078,724
Tanzania0.66161,498,437
Bulgaria0.6596,896,663
Libya0.6596,958,532
Tajikistan0.6569,749,627
Australia0.65625,788,215
Afghanistan0.65539,835,428
Azerbaijan0.65410,223,342
Greece0.65410,370,744
Montenegro0.648628,053
Romania0.64719,127,774
Moldova0.6454,024,019
Croatia0.6454,081,651
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.6423,263,466
Malta0.64442,784
Albania0.6372,872,933
Qatar0.6332,930,528
Iraq0.63341,179,350
Turkmenistan0.636,117,924
Japan0.626126,050,804
Eritrea0.6213,601,467
Belarus0.6219,442,862
Ethiopia0.62117,876,227
Belgium0.60311,632,326
Myanmar0.59754,806,012
Timor Leste0.5651,343,873
Slovakia0.4985,460,721
United States0.48332,915,073

Gini Coefficient by Country 2021