Gini Coefficient By Country 2021

map placeholder

The Gini coefficient, also called the Gini Index or Gini ratio, is a statistical measure of distribution intended to represent the income or wealth distribution. The Gini coefficient was developed by Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912 and is the most commonly used measurement of wealth or income inequality.

The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (0%) to 1 (100%), with 0 representing perfect equality and 1 representing perfect inequality. A higher Gini coefficient means greater inequality. If every resident of a nation had the same income, the Gini coefficient would be zero. If one resident earned all of the income in a nation and the rest earned zero, the Gini coefficient would be 1.

Mathematically, the Gini coefficient is defined based on the Lorenz curve. The Lorenz curve plots the percentiles of the population on the graph's horizontal axis according to income or wealth, whichever is being measured. The cumulative income or wealth of the population is plotted on the vertical axis.

While the Gini coefficient is a useful tool for analyzing the wealth or income distribution in a country, it should not indicate its overall wealth or income. Some of the world's poorest countries, such as the Central African Republic, have some of the highest Gini coefficients (61.3 in this case). A high-income country and a low-income country can have the same Gini coefficients. Additionally, due to limitations such as reliable GDP and income data, the Gini index may overstate income inequality and be inaccurate.

Income inequality has political and economic impacts such as slower GDP growth, reduced income mobility, greater household debt, political polarization, and higher poverty rates.

According to World Bank's Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2020 report, the Gini coefficient increases about 1.5 points in the five years following major epidemics, such as H1N1 (2009), Ebola (2014), and Zika (2016). The Gini coefficient saw sustained growth during the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1820, the Gini coefficient was 0.50, and in 1980 and 1992, the figure was 0.657.

The countries with the highest Gini coefficients are:

  1. South Africa - 63.0
  2. Namibia - 59.1
  3. Zambia - 57.1
  4. Sao Tome and Principe - 56.3
  5. Eswatini - 54.6
  6. Mozambique - 54.0
  7. Brazil - 53.9
  8. Hong Kong - 53.9
  9. Botswana - 53.3
  10. Honduras - 52.1

South Africa is one of the world's most unequal countries, with a Gini coefficient of 63.0. In 2005, the Gini coefficient was even higher, at 65.0. In South Africa, the richest 10% hold 71% of the wealth, while the poorest 60% hold just 7% of the wealth. Additionally, more than half of South Africa's population, about 55.5%, live in poverty, earning less than $83 per month.

The United States has a Gini coefficient of 0.480. In 1990, the Gini coefficient was 41.1, indicating an overall increase in income inequality over the last 30 years. In 2015, the top 1% of earners in the United States averaged 40 times more income than the bottom 90%. In the U.S., poverty is an increasing issue, with about 33 million workers earn less than $10 per hour, putting a family of four below the poverty level. Many of these low-wage workers have no sick days, pension, or health insurance.

Many European countries have some of the lowest Gini coefficients, such as Slovenia, Czechia, Slovakia, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Inequality is generally lower in European nations than it is in non-European nations. The Nordic countries and Central Eastern European countries are among the most equal countries.

Gini Coefficient By Country 2021

Loading...

Gini Coefficient By Country 2021

Rank Country Gini Index 2021 Population
1South Africa6360,041,994
2Namibia59.12,587,344
3Zambia57.118,920,651
4Sao Tome And Principe56.3223,368
5Eswatini54.61,172,362
6Mozambique5432,163,047
8Hong Kong53.97,552,810
7Brazil53.9213,993,437
9Botswana53.32,397,241
10Honduras52.110,062,991
11Angola51.333,933,610
12Saint Lucia51.2184,400
13Papua New Guinea50.99,119,010
14Guinea Bissau50.72,015,494
15Colombia50.451,265,844
16Panama49.24,381,579
17Republic Of The Congo48.95,657,013
18Guatemala48.318,249,860
19Costa Rica485,139,052
20Benin47.812,451,040
21Seychelles46.898,908
22Cameroon46.527,224,265
23Nicaragua46.26,702,385
24Paraguay46.27,219,638
25South Sudan4611,381,378
27Singapore45.95,896,686
26Saudi Arabia45.935,340,683
28Ecuador45.417,888,475
29Comoros45.3888,451
30Lesotho44.92,159,079
31Malawi44.719,647,684
32Guyana44.6790,326
33Chile44.419,212,361
34Philippines44.4111,046,913
35Zimbabwe44.315,092,171
36Dominican Republic43.710,953,703
37Rwanda43.713,276,513
38Central African Republic43.64,919,981
39Ghana43.531,732,129
40Chad43.316,914,985
41Togo43.18,478,250
42Peru42.833,359,418
43Uganda42.847,123,531
44Madagascar42.628,427,328
46Bolivia42.211,832,940
47Dr Congo42.192,377,993
48Turkey41.985,042,738
49Djibouti41.61,002,187
50Ivory Coast41.527,053,629
51Argentina41.445,605,826
53Qatar41.12,930,528
52Haiti41.111,541,685
54United States41.1332,915,073
55Malaysia4132,776,194
58Turkmenistan40.86,117,924
57Kenya40.854,985,698
56Iran40.885,028,759
59Tanzania40.561,498,437
60Bulgaria40.46,896,663
61Senegal40.317,196,301
62Mali40.120,855,735
64Sri Lanka39.821,497,310
65Uruguay39.73,485,151
66Morocco39.537,344,795
67Tuvalu39.111,931
69Montenegro39628,053
68Israel398,789,774
70Venezuela3928,704,954
71Samoa38.7200,149
73El Salvador38.66,518,499
72Burundi38.612,255,433
74China38.51,444,216,107
75Gabon382,278,825
76Cambodia37.916,946,438
77Indonesia37.8276,361,783
78Tonga37.6106,760
79Vanuatu37.6314,464
80Russia37.5145,912,025
81Bhutan37.4779,898
82Lithuania37.32,689,862
83Solomon Islands37.1703,996
84Mauritius36.81,273,433
86Uzbekistan36.833,935,763
85Mexico36.8130,262,216
87Fiji36.7902,906
88Yemen36.730,490,640
89Georgia36.43,979,765
90Laos36.47,379,358
91Thailand36.469,950,850
92New Zealand36.24,860,643
93Serbia36.28,697,550
94Falkland Islands363,533
95Romania3619,127,774
97Italy35.960,367,477
99Sierra Leone35.78,141,343
100Vietnam35.798,168,833
98India35.71,393,409,038
101Latvia35.61,866,942
102South Korea35.451,305,186
104Liberia35.35,180,203
103Burkina Faso35.321,497,096
105Nigeria35.1211,400,708
108Macau35658,394
107Jamaica352,973,463
106Ethiopia35117,876,227
109Luxembourg34.9634,814
110United Kingdom34.868,207,116
111Spain34.746,745,216
112Armenia34.42,968,127
114Greece34.410,370,744
113Australia34.425,788,215
115Niger34.325,130,817
116Sudan34.244,909,353
117Tajikistan349,749,627
118Greenland33.956,877
119Portugal33.810,167,925
120Azerbaijan33.710,223,342
123Jordan33.710,269,021
125Taiwan33.623,855,010
126Pakistan33.5225,199,937
127Canada33.338,067,903
128Albania33.22,872,933
129Bosnia And Herzegovina333,263,466
130Japan32.9126,050,804
131Ireland32.84,982,907
133Tunisia32.811,935,766
132Nepal32.829,674,920
134Mongolia32.73,329,289
135Switzerland32.78,715,494
136Mauritania32.64,775,119
137United Arab Emirates32.59,991,089
138Bangladesh32.4166,303,498
139Germany31.983,900,473
140Lebanon31.86,769,146
141France31.665,426,179
142Egypt31.5104,258,327
143Cyprus31.41,215,584
144Maldives31.3543,617
146Hungary30.69,634,164
148Estonia30.41,325,185
147Croatia30.44,081,651
149Austria29.79,043,070
150Poland29.737,797,005
151Iraq29.541,179,350
152Afghanistan29.439,835,428
153Malta29.2442,784
155Sweden28.810,160,169
157Timor Leste28.71,343,873
156Denmark28.75,813,298
158Netherlands28.517,173,099
159Kyrgyzstan27.76,628,356
161Kazakhstan27.518,994,962
163Finland27.45,548,360
162Belgium27.411,632,326
160Algeria27.444,616,624
164Norway275,465,630
165Iceland26.8343,353
166Ukraine26.143,466,819
167Moldova25.74,024,019
169Slovakia25.25,460,721
168Belarus25.29,442,862
171Slovenia24.22,078,724
172Faroe Islands22.749,049

Gini Coefficient By Country 2021