Incarceration is the state of being confined in prison or imprisonment.
Mass incarceration in the United States has led to several issues, including overcrowded prisons, which increase health risks and decreased psychological well-being. Additionally, the increasing number of prisoners is putting a significant strain on state budgets. Prisons must control and administer all aspects of life for inmates, which lengthy and costly list of necessities. Prison costs include adequate security, food, recreational and education opportunities, infrastructure maintenance, utility costs for the facilities, and healthcare for the prisoners. State prison spending varies greatly and can be as high as $69,355 per inmate (the average cost of an inmate in New York).
The United States is the world leader in incarceration, despite the national incarceration rate being at its lowest in 20 years, with about 25% of the world's prison population being in the US. The United States currently has over 2.1 million total prisoners. The prison population in 1972 was 200,000, almost 2 million less than it is today. The prison populations in each state vary in each state, with the highest rates in Louisiana and Oklahoma.
Mass incarceration in the United States is a civil rights issue. Many argue that incarceration dehumanizes poor people and minorities, does not increase public safety, and damages already marginalized communities.
Around the world, many countries have jail occupancy rates over 100%. Kenya's jail occupancy level is currently 284%. The United States prisoner rate (number of prisoners per 100,000 people) is 639, the world's highest.
The ten countries with the highest incarceration rates are: