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World Risk Index 2022

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Natural Disasters by Country 2024

Natural Disasters as identified by the WorldRiskIndex is based on 100 indicators evaluating each country’s risk and frequency of natural disasters. Natural disasters in this survey include typical natural disasters including droughts, earthquakes, coastal flooding, cycloses, internal or riverine floods, tsunamis and a consistent rise in sea level. To create a consistent comparison between countries, both the number of individuals and their share of the population they make up are included to ensure accurate results.

The Locations With The Highest Risk of Natural Disaster

In general, according to the findings posted by the World Population Review, the two areas the most prone to natural disasters are the Pacific and Asia. The Philippines have the highest risk of natural disaster rating of 46.82. Natural hazards including the infamous typhoon belt, typically involve five to six cyclonic storms yearly. In addition, there are active volcanoes, landslides, tsunamis and destructive earthquakes that impact this area. Indonesia is not far behind in terms of their risk index with a rating of 41.46. This risk of natural disaster includes occasional flooding, volcanoes, earthquakes, and severe droughts. In fact, Indonesia has the most volcanoes of all countries in the world.

The Impact of Natural Disasters

According to the United Nations, a natural disaster includes not only the event itself but the after effects of the event and is specifically explained as “the consequences of events triggered by natural hazards that overwhelm local response capacity and seriously affect the social and economic development of a region.” Natural disasters tend to exacerbate existing issues that are plaguing countries such as economic strain and vulnerabilities of their citizens. In addition to the overall cost of rebuilding, a country that is already weak politically in their government makeup can cause further political instability after a natural disaster.

Increase in Natural Disasters

Overall, the sudden-onset and the frequency of natural disasters are reportedly increasing. Presently, there are 400 natural disasters each year, which impacts 200 million people. To put this number in perspective, this is nearly double the number of natural disasters that took place a mere 20 years ago. In particular, the events that are increasing the most involve hydrometeorological events, meaning droughts, tornados, mudslides, hurricanes, and floods. The cause of the uptick in these particular varieties of natural disasters is blamed on climate change, but regardless of the cause, the risk of these disasters has most certainly increased.

Notes:
- As of the 2022 data year, the WorldRiskIndex comprises 100 indicators related to each country's risk, frequency, and ability to react to natural disasters, including earthquakes, cyclones, coastal floods, internal "riverine" floods, droughts, persistent sea-level rise, and tsunamis.
- Both the absolute number of exposed individuals and their share in the population are included to avoid distortions due to population size variances. For example, sea-level rise threatens 25.56% of Vanuatu's population, but only 0.56% of China's population. However, the two countries' populations are quite different, so in absolute terms, those percentages equate to 65,000 people in Vanuatu and nearly 8,000,000 people in China. Only by considering both data points can accurate exposure levels be calculated.

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Country
World Risk Index 2022
Natural Hazards
Volcanism
Philippines46.82Astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms each year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis.Significant Volcanic activity; Taal (311 m), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (2,462 m), the country's most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo, and Ragang; see
India42.31Droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes.Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
Indonesia41.46Occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires.Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; Significant Volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; on 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338 m high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami inundating portions of western Java and southern Sumatra leaving more than 400 dead; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, Sinabung, and Tambora; see
Colombia38.37Highlands subject to Volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts.Galeras (4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Mexico37.55Tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts.Volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see
Myanmar35.49Destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during the rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts.
Mozambique34.37Severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces.
China28.70Frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence.China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Bangladesh27.90Droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season.
Pakistan26.75Frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in the north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August).
Russia26.54Permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; Volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia.Significant Volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky
Vietnam25.85Occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta.
Peru25.41Earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild Volcanic activity.Volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane; see
Somalia25.07Recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during the rainy season.
Yemen24.26Sandstorms and dust storms in summer.Limited Volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century
Papua New Guinea24.10Active volcanism; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mudslides; tsunamis.severe Volcanic activity; Ulawun (2,334 m), one of Papua New Guinea's potentially most dangerous volcanoes, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Rabaul (688 m) destroyed the city of Rabaul in 1937 and 1994; Lamington erupted in 1951 killing 3,000 people; Manam's 2004 eruption forced the island's abandonment; other historically active volcanoes include Bam, Bagana, Garbuna, Karkar, Langila, Lolobau, Long Island, Pago, St. Andrew Strait, Victory, and Waiowa; see
Madagascar23.48Periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation.Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times
United States22.73Tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around the Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mudslides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development.Volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a Significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell, Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in Hawaii: Haleakala, Kilauea, Loihi; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood;
Venezuela22.45Subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts.
Ecuador22.42Frequent earthquakes; landslides; Volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts.Volcanic activity concentrated along the Andes Mountains; Sangay (5,230 m), which erupted in 2010, is mainland Ecuador's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes in the Andes include Antisana, Cayambe, Chacana, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, Sumaco, and Tungurahua; Fernandina (1,476 m), a shield volcano that last erupted in 2009, is the most active of the many Galapagos volcanoes; other historically active Galapagos volcanoes include Wolf, Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, Pinta, Marchena, and Santiago
Nicaragua22.35Destructive earthquakes; volcanoes; landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes.Significant Volcanic activity; Cerro Negro (728 m), which last erupted in 1999, is one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes; its lava flows and ash have been known to cause Significant damage to farmland and buildings; other historically active volcanoes include Concepcion, Cosiguina, Las Pilas, Masaya, Momotombo, San Cristobal, and Telica
Australia21.36Cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires.Volcanic activity on Heard and McDonald Islands
Thailand20.91Land subsidence in the Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts.
Egypt20.65Periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms.
Canada18.99Continuous permafrost in the north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains.The vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant
Iran18.48Periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes.
Panama18.38Occasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area.
Japan17.03Many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors but occasional severe earthquakes) every year; tsunamis; typhoons.Both Unzen (1,500 m) and Sakura-jima (1,117 m), which lies near the densely populated city of Kagoshima, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Asama, Honshu Island's most active volcano, Aso, Bandai, Fuji, Iwo-Jima, Kikai, Kirishima, Komaga-take, Oshima, Suwanosejima, Tokachi, Yake-dake, and Usu; see
Tanzania16.38Flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought.Limited Volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Turkey16.23Severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van; landslides; flooding.Limited Volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
Honduras16.00Frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast.
Argentina15.61San Miguel de Tucumán and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas.Volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchón-Peteroa, San José, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma
Solomon Islands14.62Tropical cyclones, but rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earthquakes, tremors, and Volcanic activity; tsunamis.Tinakula (851 m) has frequent eruption activity, while an eruption of Savo (485 m) could affect the capital Honiara on nearby Guadalcanal
El Salvador14.37Known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and Volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes.Significant Volcanic activity; San Salvador (1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country's capital, which lies just below the volcano's slopes; San Miguel (2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana
Malaysia14.36Flooding; landslides; forest fires.
Libya14.31Hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms.
Costa Rica14.20Occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at the onset of the rainy season and landslides; active volcanoes.Arenal (1,670 m), which erupted in 2010, is the most active volcano in Costa Rica; a 1968 eruption destroyed the town of Tabacon; Irazu (3,432 m), situated just east of San Jose, has the potential to spew ash over the capital city as it did between 1963 and 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Miravalles, Poas, Rincon de la Vieja, and Turrialba
Kenya13.92Recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons.Limited Volcanic activity; the Barrier (1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
Chile13.84Severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis.Significant Volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica;
Dominican Republic13.23Lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts.
New Zealand13.05Earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; Volcanic activity.Significant volcanism on North Island; Ruapehu (2,797 m), which last erupted in 2007, has a history of large eruptions in the past century; Taranaki has the potential to produce dangerous avalanches and lahars; other historically active volcanoes include Okataina, Raoul Island, Tongariro, and White Island; see
Syria12.16Dust storms, sandstorms.Syria's two historically active volcanoes, Es Safa and an unnamed volcano near the Turkish border have not erupted in centuries
Brazil12.15Recurring droughts in the northeast; floods and occasional frost in the south.
North Korea11.82Late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall.P'aektu-san (2,744 m) (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or Changbaishan), on the Chinese border, is considered historically active
Guatemala11.18Numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms.Significant Volcanic activity in the Sierra Madre range; Santa Maria (3,772 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pacaya (2,552 m), which erupted in May 2010 causing an ashfall on Guatemala City and prompting evacuations, is one of the country's most active volcanoes with frequent eruptions since 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Acatenango, Almolonga, Atitlan, Fuego, and Tacana;
Cameroon11.17Volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes.Mt. Cameroon (4,095 m), which last erupted in 2000, is the most frequently active volcano in West Africa; lakes in Oku Volcanic field have released fatal levels of gas on occasion, killing some 1,700 people in 1986
Angola11.02Locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau.
Djibouti10.66Earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods.experiences limited Volcanic activity; Ardoukoba (298 m) last erupted in 1978; Manda-Inakir, located along the Ethiopian border, is also historically active
Vanuatu10.64Tropical cyclones (January to April); Volcanic eruption on Aoba (Ambae) island began on 27 November 2005, volcanism also causes minor earthquakes; tsunamis.Significant Volcanic activity with multiple eruptions in recent years; Yasur (361 m), one of the world's most active volcanoes, has experienced continuous activity in recent centuries; other historically active volcanoes include Aoba, Ambrym, Epi, Gaua, Kuwae, Lopevi, Suretamatai, and Traitor's Head
South Korea10.51Occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity is common in the southwest.Halla (1,950 m) is considered historically active although it has not erupted in many centuries
Morocco10.29In the north, the mountains are geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts; windstorms; flash floods; landslides; in the south, a hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of the time, often severely restricting visibility.
Sudan10.12Dust storms and periodic persistent droughts.
Haiti9.99Lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts.
Tunisia9.87Flooding; earthquakes; droughts.
Spain9.68Periodic droughts, occasional flooding.
DR Congo9.65Periodic droughts in the south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley.Nyiragongo (3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano
Saudi Arabia9.64Frequent sand and dust storms.despite many Volcanic formations, there has been little activity in the past few centuries; volcanoes include Harrat Rahat, Harrat Khaybar, Harrat Lunayyir, and Jabal Yar
Algeria9.58Mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in the rainy season; droughts.
South Africa9.42Prolonged droughts.The volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa's only active volcano
Italy9.37Regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, Volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice.Significant Volcanic activity; Etna (3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate Volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
Mauritania9.34Hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind primarily in March and April; periodic droughts.
Nigeria9.12Periodic droughts; flooding.
Iraq8.65Dust storms; sandstorms; floods.
Greece8.55Severe earthquakes.Santorini (367 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active
Cambodia8.42Monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts.
Cuba7.97The east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to November (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common.
Eritrea7.70Frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms.Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011
Belize7.65Frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in the south).
Oman7.27Summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in the interior; periodic droughts.
Guinea6.84Very large tidal variation and fast currents can make local waters dangerous.
France6.67Metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in the south near the Mediterranean. Overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding.Montagne Pelee (1,394 m) on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc, it last erupted in 1932; a catastrophic eruption in May 1902 destroyed the city of St. Pierre, killing an estimated 30,000 people; La Soufriere (1,467 m) on the island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean last erupted from July 1976 to March 1977; these volcanoes are part of the Volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south
Guyana6.64Flash flood threat during rainy seasons.
Fiji6.54Cyclonic storms can occur from November to January.
United Arab Emirates6.52Frequent sand and dust storms.
Sri Lanka5.93Occasional cyclones and tornadoes.
Namibia5.93Prolonged periods of drought.
United Kingdom5.78Winter windstorms; floods.
Senegal5.42Lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts.
Portugal5.08Azores subject to severe earthquakes.Limited Volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira
Sierra Leone5.00Dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms.
Albania4.98destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Uruguay4.92Seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts.
Suriname4.87Flooding.
Croatia4.86Destructive earthquakes.
Ethiopia4.80Geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, Volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts.Volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
Gabon4.72None.
Israel4.65Sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes.
Jamaica4.65Hurricanes (especially July to November).
Poland4.63Flooding.
Gambia4.45Droughts.
Micronesia4.36Typhoons (June to December).
South Sudan4.21
Belgium4.16Flooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes.
Guinea Bissau4.14Hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during the dry season; brush fires.
Liberia4.11Dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March).
Afghanistan4.05Damaging earthquakes occur in the Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts.
Netherlands4.04Flooding.Mount Scenery (887 m), located on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, last erupted in 1640; Round Hill (601 m), a dormant volcano also known as The Quill, is located on the island of St. Eustatius in the Caribbean; these islands are at the northern end of the Volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends south to Grenada
Tonga3.94Cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and Volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou.Moderate Volcanic activity; Fonualei (180 m) has shown frequent activity in recent years, while Niuafo'ou (260 m), which last erupted in 1985, has forced evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Late and Tofua
Germany3.92Flooding.
Ukraine3.89Occasional floods; occasional droughts.
Antigua and Barbuda3.84Hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts.
Georgia3.79Earthquakes.
Bahamas3.75Hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind damage.
Lebanon3.52Earthquakes; dust storms, sandstorms.
Mauritius3.50Cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards.
Jordan3.48Droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods.
Equatorial Guinea3.36Violent windstorms; flash floods.Santa Isabel (3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea
Central African Republic3.34Hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common.
Malawi3.30Flooding; droughts; earthquakes.
Montenegro3.30Destructive earthquakes.
Dominica3.27Flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months.Dominica was the last island to be formed in the Caribbean some 26 million years ago, it lies in the middle of the Volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from the island of Saba in the north to Grenada in the south; of the 16 volcanoes that make up this arc, five are located on Dominica, more than any other island in the Caribbean: Morne aux Diables (861 m), Morne Diablotins (1,430 m), Morne Trois Pitons (1,387 m), Watt Mountain (1,224 m), which last erupted in 1997, and Morne Plat Pays (940 m); the two best known Volcanic features on Dominica, the Valley of Desolation and the Boiling Lake thermal areas, lie on the flanks of Watt Mountain and both are popular tourist destinations
Romania3.19Earthquakes, most severe in the south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides.
Norway3.16Rockslides, avalanches.Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano
Samoa3.15Occasional cyclones; active volcanism.Savai'I Island (1,858 m), which last erupted in 1911, is historically active
Ireland3.10Rare extreme weather events.
Bolivia3.07Flooding in the northeast (March to April).Volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and the Olca-Paruma Volcanic complex (5,762 m to 5,167 m)
Ghana3.05Dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts.
Burundi3.03Flooding; landslides; drought.
Zambia2.94Periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April).
Trinidad and Tobago2.93Outside the usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms.
Chad2.92Hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in the north; periodic droughts; locust plagues.
Laos2.91Floods, droughts.
Uganda2.81Droughts; floods; earthquakes; landslides; hailstorms.
Cyprus2.78Moderate earthquake activity; droughts.
Armenia2.72Occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts.
Rwanda2.70Periodic droughts; the Volcanic Virunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Visoke (3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano
Saint Lucia2.69Hurricanes.Mount Gimie (948 m), also known as Qualibou, is a caldera on the west of the island; the iconic twin pyramidal peaks of Gros Piton (771 m) and Petit Piton (743 m) are lava dome remnants associated with the Soufriere volcano; there have been no historical magmatic eruptions, but a minor steam eruption in 1766 spread a thin layer of ash over a wide area; Saint Lucia is part of the Volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south
Kiribati2.64Typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level.
Nepal2.62Severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons.
Kuwait2.56Sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April and bring heavy rain, which can damage roads and houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year but are most common between March and August.
Comoros2.56Cyclones possible during the rainy season (December to April); Volcanic activity on Grand Comore.Karthala (2,361 m) on Grand Comore Island last erupted in 2007; a 2005 eruption forced thousands of people to be evacuated and produced a large ash cloud
Seychelles2.54Lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts.
Bosnia and Herzegovina2.51Destructive earthquakes.
Zimbabwe2.44Recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare.
Tajikistan2.38Earthquakes; floods.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines2.30Hurricanes; La Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent is a constant threat.La Soufriere (1,234 m) on the island of Saint Vincent last erupted in 1979; the island of Saint Vincent is part of the Volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south
Marshall Islands2.29Infrequent typhoons.
Mali2.25Tsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise.
Lithuania2.24Occasional floods, droughts.
Azerbaijan2.20Droughts.
Kyrgyzstan2.20Major flooding during snowmelt; prone to earthquakes.
Kazakhstan2.18Earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty.
Niger2.17Recurring droughts.
Bulgaria2.15Earthquakes; landslides.
Latvia2.14Large percentage of agricultural fields can become waterlogged and require drainage.
Ivory Coast2.08Coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible.
Mongolia2.08Dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions.
Saint Kitts and Nevis2.07Hurricanes (July to October).Mount Liamuiga (1,156 m) on Saint Kitts, and Nevis Peak (985 m) on Nevis, are both volcanoes that are part of the Volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles, which extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south
Burkina Faso2.06Recurring droughts.
Sweden2.06Ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic.
Barbados2.06Infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides.
Grenada1.85Lies on the edge of the hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November.Mount Saint Catherine (840 m) lies on the island of Grenada; Kick 'em Jenny, an active submarine volcano (seamount) on the Caribbean Sea floor, lies about 8 km north of the island of Grenada; these two volcanoes are at the southern end of the Volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends up to the Netherlands dependency of Saba in the north
Serbia1.84Destructive earthquakes.
Estonia1.82Sometimes flooding occurs in the spring.
Eswatini1.82Drought.
Uzbekistan1.74Earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts.
Paraguay1.74Local flooding in the southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June).
Iceland1.65Earthquakes and Volcanic activity.Iceland, situated on top of a hotspot, experiences severe Volcanic activity; Eyjafjallajokull (1,666 m) erupted in 2010, sending ash high into the atmosphere and seriously disrupting European air traffic; scientists continue to monitor nearby Katla (1,512 m), which has a high probability of eruption in the very near future, potentially disrupting air traffic; Grimsvoetn and Hekla are Iceland's most active volcanoes; other historically active volcanoes include Askja, Bardarbunga, Brennisteinsfjoll, Esjufjoll, Hengill, Krafla, Krisuvik, Kverkfjoll, Oraefajokull, Reykjanes, Torfajokull, and Vestmannaeyjar
Benin1.61Hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect the north from December to March.
Tuvalu1.46Severe tropical storms are usually rare, but in 1997 there were three cyclones; low levels of islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level.
Botswana1.44Periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility.
Slovenia1.44Flooding; earthquakes.
Brunei1.34Typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare.
Togo1.32Hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in the north during winter; periodic droughts.
Lesotho1.32Periodic droughts.
Finland1.30Severe winters in the north.
Moldova1.30Landslides.
Turkmenistan1.29Earthquakes; mudslides; droughts; dust storms; floods.
Cape Verde1.27Prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active.Fogo (2,829 m), which last erupted in 1995, is Cabo Verde's only active volcano
North Macedonia1.26High seismic risks.
Palau1.25Typhoons (June to December).
Qatar1.17Haze, dust storms, sandstorms common.
Austria1.14Landslides; avalanches; earthquakes.
Bhutan1.09Violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's Bhutanese name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season.
Switzerland1.03Avalanches, landslides; flash floods.
Denmark1.03Flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes.
Maldives1.02Tsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise.
Slovakia1.00Flooding.
Nauru1.00Periodic droughts.
Hungary0.97
Bahrain0.95Periodic droughts; dust storms.
Malta0.94Occasional droughts.
Belarus0.83Large tracts of marshy land.
Singapore0.81Flash floods.
Liechtenstein0.79Avalanches, landslides.
Luxembourg0.52Occasional flooding.
Sao Tome and Principe0.48Flooding.
San Marino0.38Occasional earthquakes.
Andorra0.26Avalanches.
Monaco0.26None.
TaiwanEarthquakes; typhoons.Kueishantao Island (401 m), east of Taiwan, is its only historically active volcano, although it has not erupted in centuries
Hong KongOccasional typhoons.
Puerto RicoPeriodic droughts; hurricanes.
Timor LesteFloods and landslides are common; earthquakes; tsunamis; tropical cyclones.
MacauTyphoons.
French PolynesiaOccasional cyclonic storms in January.
CuracaoCuracao is south of the Caribbean hurricane belt and is rarely threatened.
JerseyVery large tidal variation can be hazardous to navigation.
Cayman IslandsHurricanes (July to November).
BermudaHurricanes (June to November).
GuernseyVery large tidal variation and fast currents can make local waters dangerous.
GreenlandContinuous permafrost over the northern two-thirds of the island.
Faroe IslandsStrong winds and heavy rains can occur throughout the year.
Northern Mariana IslandsActive volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons (especially August to November).
Turks and Caicos IslandsFrequent hurricanes.
Sint MaartenSubject to hurricanes from July to November.
British Virgin IslandsHurricanes and tropical storms (July to October).
Cook IslandsTropical cyclones (November to March).
Falkland IslandsStrong winds persist throughout the year.
NiueTropical cyclones.
Vatican CityOccasional earthquakes.
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Where in the world is most affected by natural disasters?

The areas most prone to disasters are Asia and the Pacific.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources