Circumcision by Country 2021

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Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis. It is most often an elective surgery performed on babies and children for cultural or religious reasons. In some cases, it may be done as a treatment option for chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs) and other and other medical conditions.

Circumcision faces ethical and legal questions regarding informed consent and human rights for the circumcision of babies and children. Some of the world's major medical organizations argue that elective circumcision has some health benefits and outweigh the small risks associated with the procedure. In contrast, other organizations consider elective circumcision to have no benefits and significant risks. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends consideration of circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in areas with high rates of HIV, such as in sub-Saharan Africa.

About one-third of males worldwide are circumcised. It is most common among Muslims and Jews, as it is part of religious law in Judaism and is an established practice in Islam. The procedure is also standard in the United States and parts of Southeast Asia and Africa but is rare in Europe, Latin America, and most of Asia.

The prevalence of circumcision around the world, therefore, varies significantly by country. A study titled "Estimation of country-specific and global prevalence of male circumcision" looked at sources that contained data for mature males that were circumcised. Data were obtained on male circumcision in countries where it is practiced for health, religious, or cultural reasons and in countries where the male or his parents' personal preference is the determining decision to have the procedure done. Personal preference was more common in Anglophone countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Countries and territories where the prevalence of male circumcision is above 99% are Afghanistan, Iran, Comoros, Gabon, Gambia, the Gaza strip, Mauritania, Morocco, Tajikistan, Tunisia, West Bank, Western Sahara, and Yemen. Prevalence above 90% is seen in Israel, the Philippines, Algeria, Bangladesh, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Samoa, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nauru, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and more.

Prevalence was especially low in Latin American countries and the Caribbean Islands (less than 1%) and European countries (typically 10% or less).

According to a CDC study, male circumcision rates in the United States for newborns decreased between 1979 and 2010 from 64.5% to 58.3%. It is estimated that the overall rate in the United States is about 77%.

Circumcision by Country 2021

Country Prevalence 2021 Population
Morocco99.90%37,344,795
Tunisia99.80%11,935,766
Afghanistan99.80%39,835,428
Iran99.70%85,028,759
Western Sahara99.60%611,875
Comoros99.40%888,451
Gabon99.20%2,278,825
Mauritania99.20%4,775,119
Tajikistan99.00%9,749,627
Yemen99.00%30,490,640
Iraq98.90%41,179,350
Nigeria98.90%211,400,708
Jordan98.80%10,269,021
Turkey98.60%85,042,738
Azerbaijan98.50%10,223,342
Maldives98.40%543,617
Algeria97.90%44,616,624
Liberia97.70%5,180,203
Eritrea97.20%3,601,467
DR Congo97.20%92,377,993
Saudi Arabia97.10%35,340,683
Ivory Coast96.70%27,053,629
Libya96.60%6,958,532
Djibouti96.50%1,002,187
Uzbekistan96.50%33,935,763
Pakistan96.40%225,199,937
Sierra Leone96.10%8,141,343
Niger95.50%25,130,817
Togo95.20%8,478,250
Tokelau95.00%1,373
Niue95.00%1,619
Nauru95.00%10,876
Tuvalu95.00%11,931
Cook Islands95.00%17,565
Palau95.00%18,169
American Samoa95.00%55,100
Tonga95.00%106,760
Guam95.00%170,179
Samoa95.00%200,149
Vanuatu95.00%314,464
Solomon Islands95.00%703,996
Madagascar94.70%28,427,328
Egypt94.70%104,258,327
Cameroon94.00%27,224,265
Somalia93.50%16,359,504
Senegal93.50%17,196,301
Turkmenistan93.40%6,117,924
Guinea Bissau93.30%2,015,494
Bangladesh93.20%166,303,498
Benin92.90%12,451,040
Syria92.80%18,275,702
Indonesia92.50%276,361,783
Ethiopia92.20%117,876,227
Kyrgyzstan91.90%6,628,356
Israel91.70%8,789,774
Philippines91.70%111,046,913
Ghana91.60%31,732,129
Kenya91.20%54,985,698
Burkina Faso88.30%21,497,096
Oman87.70%5,223,375
Equatorial Guinea87.00%1,449,896
Kuwait86.40%4,328,550
Mali86.00%20,855,735
Guinea84.20%13,497,244
Bahrain81.20%1,748,296
French Polynesia78.00%282,530
Qatar77.50%2,930,528
South Korea77.00%51,305,186
United Arab Emirates76.00%9,991,089
Chad73.50%16,914,985
Tanzania72.00%61,498,437
United States71.20%332,915,073
Republic of the Congo70.00%5,657,013
Central African Republic63.00%4,919,981
Burundi61.70%12,255,433
Malaysia61.40%32,776,194
Lebanon59.70%6,769,146
Kazakhstan56.40%18,994,962
Fiji55.00%902,906
Lesotho52.00%2,159,079
Brunei51.90%441,532
New Caledonia50.00%288,218
Albania47.70%2,872,933
Mozambique47.40%32,163,047
South Africa44.70%60,041,994
Bosnia And Herzegovina41.60%3,263,466
Sudan39.40%44,909,353
New Zealand33.00%4,860,643
Canada31.90%38,067,903
Uganda26.70%47,123,531
Australia26.60%25,788,215
Namibia25.50%2,587,344
South Sudan23.60%11,381,378
Thailand23.40%69,950,850
Cyprus22.70%1,215,584
Belgium22.60%11,632,326
Malawi21.60%19,647,684
United Kingdom20.70%68,207,116
Montenegro18.50%628,053
Mauritius16.60%1,273,433
Suriname15.90%591,800
Mexico15.40%130,262,216
Botswana15.10%2,397,241
Singapore14.90%5,896,686
Jamaica14.00%2,973,463
France14.00%65,426,179
China14.00%1,444,216,107
Dominican Republic13.70%10,953,703
India13.50%1,393,409,038
Bulgaria13.40%6,896,663
Rwanda13.30%13,276,513
Zambia12.80%18,920,651
Guyana12.00%790,326
Russia11.80%145,912,025
Germany10.90%83,900,473
Georgia10.60%3,979,765
Papua New Guinea10.10%9,119,010
Zimbabwe9.20%15,092,171
Japan9.00%126,050,804
Slovenia8.50%2,078,724
Sri Lanka8.50%21,497,310
Taiwan8.30%23,855,010
Eswatini8.20%1,172,362
Spain6.60%46,745,216
Timor Leste6.40%1,343,873
Haiti6.20%11,541,685
Switzerland5.90%8,715,494
Austria5.80%9,043,070
Netherlands5.70%17,173,099
Denmark5.30%5,813,298
Sweden5.10%10,160,169
Liechtenstein4.80%38,250
Greece4.70%10,370,744
Mongolia4.40%3,329,289
Nepal4.20%29,674,920
Colombia4.20%51,265,844
Serbia3.70%8,697,550
Peru3.70%33,359,418
Cambodia3.50%16,946,438
Norway3.00%5,465,630
Argentina2.90%45,605,826
Italy2.60%60,367,477
Luxembourg2.40%634,814
Ukraine2.30%43,466,819
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines1.70%111,263
Croatia1.30%4,081,651
Brazil1.30%213,993,437
British Virgin Islands1.20%30,421
Andorra1.10%77,355
Seychelles1.10%98,908
Bhutan1.00%779,898
Panama0.95%4,381,579
Barbados0.90%287,711
Ireland0.90%4,982,907
Finland0.82%5,548,360
Bermuda0.80%62,090
Honduras0.80%10,062,991
Uruguay0.62%3,485,151
Portugal0.61%10,167,925
Monaco0.50%39,511
Moldova0.50%4,024,019
Aruba0.46%107,204
Latvia0.40%1,866,942
Romania0.34%19,127,774
Venezuela0.33%28,704,954
Belarus0.32%9,442,862
Anguilla0.30%15,117
Grenada0.30%113,021
Malta0.30%442,784
Estonia0.25%1,325,185
Cayman Islands0.20%66,497
Dominica0.20%72,167
Isle of Man0.20%85,410
Lithuania0.20%2,689,862
Costa Rica0.20%5,139,052
Slovakia0.20%5,460,721
Chile0.20%19,212,361
Vietnam0.20%98,168,833
El Salvador0.11%6,518,499
Paraguay0.11%7,219,638
Cuba0.11%11,317,505
Bolivia0.11%11,832,940
Ecuador0.11%17,888,475
Guatemala0.11%18,249,860
Poland0.11%37,797,005
Montserrat0.10%4,977
Wallis And Futuna0.10%11,094
San Marino0.10%34,017
Saint Martin0.10%39,234
Faroe Islands0.10%49,049
Greenland0.10%56,877
Marshall Islands0.10%59,610
Micronesia0.10%116,254
Kiribati0.10%121,392
Saint Lucia0.10%184,400
Sao Tome And Principe0.10%223,368
Iceland0.10%343,353
Belize0.10%404,914
Macau0.10%658,394
Puerto Rico0.10%2,828,255
Armenia0.10%2,968,127
Nicaragua0.10%6,702,385
Laos0.10%7,379,358
North Korea0.10%25,887,041
Curacao0.07%164,798

Circumcision by Country 2021