Circumcision by Country 2022

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Circumcision is a medical procedure in which the foreskin of a human male's penis is removed. It is most often an elective surgery and is typically performed on babies and children for cultural or religious reasons. In some cases, circumcision may be implemented as a treatment option for chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs) and other medical conditions.

Circumcision rates around the world

About one-third of males worldwide are circumcised, although the prevalence of circumcision varies significantly by country and culture. It is most common among Muslims and Jews, as it is part of religious law in Judaism and is an established practice in Islam. Circumcision is also standard in the United States and parts of Southeast Asia and Africa, but is rare in Europe, Latin America, and most of Asia. A personal preference in favor of circumcision is more common in Anglophone countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Countries and territories in which the prevalence of male circumcision is above 99%:

Country % Country %
Gaza Strip 99.9 Western Sahara 99.6
Morocco 99.9 Comoros 99.4
West Bank 99.9 Gabon 99.2
Afghanistan 99.8 Mauritania 99.2
Tunisia 99.8 Tajikistan 99.0
Iran 99.7 Yemen 99.0

A 2016 study titled "Estimation of country-specific and global prevalence of male circumcision" compared data for circumcised mature males in 237 countries and territories around the world. 12 countries (listed above) tallied circumcision rates higher than 99%, while more than fifty additional countries posted rates of less than 99% but still above 90%. These include Israel, the Philippines, Algeria, Bangladesh, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Samoa, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nauru, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan (see full data set in table at page bottom). On the other end of the spectrum, circumcision was especially uncommon in European countries (typically 10% or less) as well as Latin American countries and the Caribbean Islands (less than 1%).

Circumcision in the United States

According to a CDC study, male circumcision rates in the United States for newborns decreased between 1979 and 2010 from 64.5% to 58.3%. It is estimated that the overall rate of circumcision in the United States is approximately 80.5%.

Controversy over circumcision

Although circumcision of babies and children is common in many cultures, opponents of the act have raised ethical and legal questions regarding its lack of informed consent and an arguable violation of human rights. Some of the world's major medical organizations argue that elective circumcision has health benefits which outweigh the minimal risks associated with the procedure. In contrast, other medical groups decline to recommend circumcision, saying that more evidence is needed to prove that the procedure is beneficial. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the consideration of circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in areas with high rates of HIV, such as the countries of sub-Saharan Africa.

Circumcision by Country 2022

Country % of Men Circumcised 2022 Population
Palestine99.90%5,345,541
Morocco99.90%37,772,756
Tunisia99.80%12,046,656
Afghanistan99.80%40,754,388
Iran99.70%86,022,837
Western Sahara99.60%626,161
Comoros99.40%907,419
Gabon99.20%2,331,533
Mauritania99.20%4,901,981
Tajikistan99.00%9,957,464
Yemen99.00%31,154,867
Iraq98.90%42,164,965
Nigeria98.90%216,746,934
Jordan98.80%10,300,869
Turkey98.60%85,561,976
Azerbaijan98.50%10,300,205
Maldives98.40%540,985
Algeria97.90%45,350,148
Liberia97.70%5,305,117
Eritrea97.20%3,662,244
DR Congo97.20%95,240,792
Saudi Arabia97.10%35,844,909
Ivory Coast96.70%27,742,298
Libya96.60%7,040,745
Djibouti96.50%1,016,097
Uzbekistan96.50%34,382,084
Pakistan96.40%229,488,994
Sierra Leone96.10%8,306,436
Niger95.50%26,083,660
Togo95.20%8,680,837
Tokelau95.00%1,378
Niue95.00%1,622
Nauru95.00%10,903
Tuvalu95.00%12,066
Cook Islands95.00%17,571
Palau95.00%18,233
American Samoa95.00%55,030
Tonga95.00%107,749
Guam95.00%171,519
Samoa95.00%202,239
Vanuatu95.00%321,832
Solomon Islands95.00%721,159
Madagascar94.70%29,178,077
Egypt94.70%106,156,692
Gambia94.50%2,558,482
Cameroon94.00%27,911,548
Somalia93.50%16,841,795
Senegal93.50%17,653,671
Turkmenistan93.40%6,201,943
Guinea Bissau93.30%2,063,367
Bangladesh93.20%167,885,689
Benin92.90%12,784,726
Syria92.80%19,364,809
Indonesia92.50%279,134,505
Ethiopia92.20%120,812,698
Kyrgyzstan91.90%6,728,271
Israel91.70%8,922,892
Philippines91.70%112,508,994
Ghana91.60%32,395,450
Kenya91.20%56,215,221
Northern Mariana Islands90.00%58,269
Oman87.70%5,323,993
Equatorial Guinea87.00%1,496,662
Kuwait86.40%4,380,326
Mali86.00%21,473,764
Guinea84.20%13,865,691
Bahrain81.20%1,783,983
United States80.50%334,805,269
French Polynesia78.00%284,164
Qatar77.50%2,979,915
South Korea77.00%51,329,899
United Arab Emirates76.00%10,081,785
Chad73.50%17,413,580
Tanzania72.00%63,298,550
Republic of the Congo70.00%5,797,805
Central African Republic63.00%5,016,678
Burundi61.70%12,624,840
Malaysia61.40%33,181,072
Lebanon59.70%6,684,849
Australia58.00%26,068,792
Angola57.50%35,027,343
Kazakhstan56.40%19,205,043
Fiji55.00%909,466
Lesotho52.00%2,175,699
Brunei51.90%445,431
New Caledonia50.00%290,915
Albania47.70%2,866,374
Mozambique47.40%33,089,461
South Africa44.70%60,756,135
Sudan39.40%45,992,020
New Zealand33.00%4,898,203
Canada31.90%38,388,419
Hong Kong28.00%7,604,299
Uganda26.70%48,432,863
Namibia25.50%2,633,874
South Sudan23.60%11,618,511
Cyprus22.70%1,223,387
Belgium22.60%11,668,278
Zambia21.60%19,470,234
Malawi21.60%20,180,839
United Kingdom20.70%68,497,907
Montenegro18.50%627,950
Mauritius16.60%1,274,727
Suriname15.90%596,831
Mexico15.40%131,562,772
Botswana15.10%2,441,162
Singapore14.90%5,943,546
Jamaica14.00%2,985,094
France14.00%65,584,518
China14.00%1,448,471,400
Dominican Republic13.70%11,056,370
India13.50%1,406,631,776
Bulgaria13.40%6,844,597
Rwanda13.30%13,600,464
Guyana12.00%794,045
Thailand11.90%70,078,203
Russia11.80%145,805,947
Georgia10.60%3,968,738
Papua New Guinea10.10%9,292,169
Zimbabwe9.20%15,331,428
Japan9.00%125,584,838
Slovenia8.50%2,078,034
Sri Lanka8.50%21,575,842
Taiwan8.30%23,888,595
Germany6.70%83,883,596
Spain6.60%46,719,142
Timor Leste6.40%1,369,429
Haiti6.20%11,680,283
Gibraltar6.00%33,704
Switzerland5.90%8,773,637
Austria5.80%9,066,710
Netherlands5.70%17,211,447
Denmark5.30%5,834,950
Sweden5.10%10,218,971
Liechtenstein4.80%38,387
Greece4.70%10,316,637
Mongolia4.40%3,378,078
Nepal4.20%30,225,582
Serbia3.70%8,653,016
Peru3.70%33,684,208
Cambodia3.50%17,168,639
Norway3.00%5,511,370
Argentina2.90%46,010,234
Italy2.60%60,262,770
Luxembourg2.40%642,371
Ukraine2.30%43,192,122
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines1.70%111,551
Croatia1.30%4,059,286
Brazil1.30%215,353,593
British Virgin Islands1.20%30,596
Andorra1.10%77,463
Seychelles1.10%99,426
Bhutan1.00%787,941
Panama1.00%4,446,964
Barbados0.90%288,023
Ireland0.90%5,020,199
Bermuda0.80%61,939
Finland0.80%5,554,960
Hungary0.80%9,606,259
Antigua And Barbuda0.60%99,509
United States Virgin Islands0.60%103,971
Uruguay0.60%3,496,016
Portugal0.60%10,140,570
Monaco0.50%39,783
Aruba0.50%107,609
Moldova0.50%4,013,171
Latvia0.40%1,848,837
Anguilla0.30%15,230
Saint Kitts And Nevis0.30%53,871
Grenada0.30%113,475
Malta0.30%444,033
Estonia0.30%1,321,910
Belarus0.30%9,432,800
Romania0.30%19,031,335
Venezuela0.30%29,266,991
Saint Pierre And Miquelon0.20%5,759
Cayman Islands0.20%67,277
Dominica0.20%72,344
Isle of Man0.20%85,732
Bahamas0.20%400,516
Lithuania0.20%2,661,708
Costa Rica0.20%5,182,354
Slovakia0.20%5,460,193
Chile0.20%19,250,195
Vietnam0.20%98,953,541
Vatican City0.10%799
Falkland Islands0.10%3,539
Montserrat0.10%4,965
Wallis And Futuna0.10%10,982
San Marino0.10%34,085
Saint Martin0.10%39,730
Turks And Caicos Islands0.10%39,741
Sint Maarten0.10%43,966
Faroe Islands0.10%49,233
Greenland0.10%56,973
Marshall Islands0.10%60,057
Micronesia0.10%117,489
Kiribati0.10%123,419
Curacao0.10%165,529
Saint Lucia0.10%185,113
Sao Tome And Principe0.10%227,679
Iceland0.10%345,393
Belize0.10%412,190
Puerto Rico0.10%2,829,812
Armenia0.10%2,971,966
El Salvador0.10%6,550,389
Nicaragua0.10%6,779,100
Paraguay0.10%7,305,843
Laos0.10%7,481,023
Honduras0.10%10,221,247
Czech Republic0.10%10,736,784
Cuba0.10%11,305,652
Bolivia0.10%11,992,656
Ecuador0.10%18,113,361
Guatemala0.10%18,584,039
North Korea0.10%25,990,679
Poland0.10%37,739,785

Circumcision by Country 2022

Sources