The question of whether or not the nation of Canada has states is arguably a question of semantics. In the strictest sense, Canada does not have "states" the way countries such as the United States, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, and India do—however, that's arguably just because the Canadian government calls them by a different term (two terms, in fact). In reality, Canada has 13 sub-national divisions—10 provinces and three territories—which are arguably equivalent to states in all but name.
|Newfoundland and Labrador||Province|
|Prince Edward Island||Province|
What is the difference between a territory and a province in Canada? The difference lies in how political power and authority is delegated. Provinces attain their governmental power and authority from the Constitution Act of 1867 and are considered co-sovereign entities with a significant degree of autonomy, much like U.S. states. Territories, by comparison, are not self-sovereign and command only the authority and responsibility granted them by the Canadian Parliament. That said, the Canadian government has endeavored to grant territories increased autonomy in recent years and this trend is expected to continue.
The largest province by area is Quebec, while the smallest is Prince Edward Island. In terms of population, Ontario is the largest province with a population of more than 14 million. The smallest by population is Prince Edward Island, which has a total population of barely 150,000. In total, nearly 37 million people lived throughout all of Canada's provinces in 2021.
Moving on to the three territories—Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut—Nunavut is the largest by area, while Northwest Territories is the largest by population. The total population across all Canadian territories was just under 119,000 in 2021.
The country of Canada is divided into 13 separate states, provinces, and territories, with Quebec being the largest and Prince Edward Island being the smallest.